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Die katholische Kirche , oft als römisch-katholische Kirche bezeichnet , ist die größte christliche Kirche mit etwa 1,3 Milliarden getauften Katholiken weltweit ab 2019 . [4] Als älteste und größte kontinuierlich funktionierende internationale Institution der Welt [7] hat sie eine herausragende Rolle in der Geschichte und Entwicklung der westlichen Zivilisation gespielt . [8] Die Kirche besteht aus 24 bestimmten Kirchen und fast 3.500 Diözesen und Eparchien auf der ganzen Welt . Der Papst, der der Bischof von Rom ist (und zu dessen Titeln auch der Stellvertreter Jesu Christi und der Nachfolger des heiligen Petrus gehören), ist der oberste Pastor der Kirche [9] , der mit dem universellen petrinischen Dienst der Einheit und Korrektur betraut ist . Die Verwaltung der Kirche, der Heilige Stuhl , befindet sich in der Vatikanstadt , einer winzigen Enklave Roms , deren Staatsoberhaupt der Papst ist .

Die Grundüberzeugungen des Katholizismus finden sich im Nicene-Glaubensbekenntnis . Die katholische Kirche lehrt, dass es die einzige, heilige, katholische und apostolische Kirche ist, die von Jesus Christus in seinem Großen Auftrag gegründet wurde , [10] [11] [Anmerkung 1], dass ihre Bischöfe die Nachfolger der Apostel Christi sind und dass der Papst es ist der Nachfolger des heiligen Petrus , dem Jesus Christus den Vorrang verlieh. [14] Sie behauptet, dass sie den ursprünglichen christlichen Glauben praktiziert und dabei die Unfehlbarkeit vorbehalten hat , die von ihr weitergegeben wurdeheilige Tradition . [15] Die lateinische Kirche , die dreiundzwanzig katholischen Ostkirchen und Institute wie Bettelorden , eingeschlossen Mönchsorden und dritte Aufträge spiegeln eine Vielzahl von theologischen und spirituellen Betonungen in der Kirche. [16] [17]

Von den sieben Sakramenten ist die Eucharistie das wichtigste, das in der Messe liturgisch gefeiert wird . [18] Die Kirche lehrt , dass durch Weihe von einem Priester , der Opfer- Brot und Wein den Leib und das Blut Christi werden . Die Jungfrau Maria wird verehrt in der katholischen Kirche als Mutter Gott und Königin des Himmels , geehrt in Dogmen und Andachten . [19] Seine Lehre beinhaltet die Barmherzigkeit Gottes , Heiligung durch Glauben und Evangelisierung des Evangeliums sowie katholische Soziallehre , die die freiwillige Unterstützung der Kranken, Armen und Bedrängten durch die körperlichen und geistigen Werke der Barmherzigkeit betont . Die katholische Kirche betreibt weltweit Tausende katholischer Schulen , Krankenhäuser und Waisenhäuser und ist der weltweit größte nichtstaatliche Anbieter von Bildung und Gesundheitsversorgung. [20] Zu seinen weiteren sozialen Diensten zählen zahlreiche gemeinnützige und humanitäre Organisationen.

Die katholische Kirche hat die westliche Philosophie , Kultur , Kunst , Musik und Wissenschaft beeinflusst. Katholiken leben auf der ganzen Welt durch Missionen , Diaspora und Bekehrungen . Seit dem 20. Jahrhundert lebt die Mehrheit aufgrund der Säkularisierung in Europa und der zunehmenden Verfolgung im Nahen Osten auf der südlichen Hemisphäre . Die katholische Kirche teilte die Gemeinschaft mit der ostorthodoxen Kirche bis zum Ost-West-Schisma im Jahr 1054 und bestritt insbesondere dieAutorität des Papstes . Vor dem Konzil von Ephesus im Jahr 431 n. Chr. Teilte auch die Kirche des Ostens diese Gemeinschaft, ebenso wie die orientalisch-orthodoxen Kirchen vor dem Konzil von Chalcedon im Jahr 451 n. Chr .; alle trennten sich hauptsächlich über Unterschiede in der Christologie . Im 16. Jahrhundert führte die Reformation dazu, dass auch der Protestantismus abbrach. Ab dem späten 20. Jahrhundert wurde die katholische Kirche wegen ihrer Lehren über Sexualität , ihrer Unfähigkeit, Frauen zu ordinieren , und ihrer Behandlung von Fällen sexuellen Missbrauchs, an denen Geistliche beteiligt waren, kritisiert .

Name

Die erste Verwendung des Begriffs "katholische Kirche" (wörtlich übersetzt "Universalkirche") erfolgte durch den Kirchenvater Saint Ignatius von Antiochia in seinem Brief an die Smyrnaer ( ca.  110  n. Chr.). [21] Ignatius von Antiochien wird auch die früheste aufgezeichnete Verwendung des Begriffs "Christentum" zugeschrieben (Griechisch: Χριστιανισμός ) c.  100  n. Chr. [22] Er starb in Rom mit seinen Reliquien in der Basilika San Clemente al Laterano .

Katholisch (aus dem Griechischen : καθολικός , romanisiert :  katholikos , lit.  'universal') wurde erstmals im frühen 2. Jahrhundert zur Beschreibung der Kirche verwendet. [23] Die erste bekannte Verwendung des Ausdrucks "die katholische Kirche" ( Griechisch : καθολικὴ ἐκκλησία , romanisiert :  er katholike ekklesia ) erfolgte in dem Brief, der um 110 n. Chr. Vom Heiligen Ignatius von Antiochien an die Smyrnaer geschrieben wurde . [Anmerkung 2] In den katechetischen Vorlesungen ( ca.  350 ) des Heiligen Kyrill von JerusalemDer Name "Katholische Kirche" wurde verwendet, um es von anderen Gruppen zu unterscheiden, die sich auch "die Kirche" nannten. [24] [25] Der "katholische" Begriff wurde in dem Edikt De fide Catolica von Theodosius I. , dem letzten Kaiser , der bei der Errichtung der Staatskirche über die östliche und die westliche Hälfte des Römischen Reiches herrschte, weiter betont das Römische Reich . [26]

Seit dem Ost-West-Schisma von 1054 hat die Ostkirche das Adjektiv "Orthodox" als ihren charakteristischen Beinamen (ihr offizieller Name ist jedoch weiterhin "Orthodoxe Katholische Kirche" [27] ) und die Westkirche in Gemeinschaft mit der Kirche verwendet Der Heilige Stuhl hat in ähnlicher Weise "katholisch" genommen und diese Beschreibung auch nach der protestantischen Reformation des 16. Jahrhunderts beibehalten, als diejenigen, die aufhörten, in Gemeinschaft zu sein, als "Protestanten" bekannt wurden. [28] [29]

Während die "römische Kirche" seit dem Fall des weströmischen Reiches und bis ins frühe Mittelalter (6. bis 10. Jahrhundert) zur Beschreibung der Diözese Rom des Papstes verwendet wurde , wurde die "römisch-katholische Kirche" auf die gesamte Kirche angewendet in englischer Sprache seit der protestantischen Reformation im späten 16. Jahrhundert. [30] "Römisch-katholisch" ist gelegentlich auch in Dokumenten des Heiligen Stuhls [Anmerkung 3] enthalten, die insbesondere für bestimmte nationale Bischofskonferenzen und lokale Diözesen gelten. [Anmerkung 4]

Der Name "katholische Kirche" für die gesamte Kirche wird im Katechismus der katholischen Kirche (1990) und im Code of Canon Law (1983) verwendet. Der Name "katholische Kirche" wird auch in den Dokumenten des Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils (1962–1965), [31] des Ersten Vatikanischen Konzils (1869–1870), [32] des Konzils von Trient (1545–1563) [ 33] und zahlreiche andere offizielle Dokumente. [34] [35]

Geschichte

Dieses Fresko (1481-1482) von Pietro Perugino in der Sixtina zeigt Jesus die geben Schlüssel des Himmels zu St. Peter .
Das letzte Abendmahl , ein Wandgemälde von Leonardo da Vinci aus denspäten 1490er Jahren, das das letzte Abendmahl Jesu und seiner zwölf Apostel am Vorabend seiner Kreuzigung darstellt . Die meisten Apostel sind in Rom begraben, einschließlich des heiligen Petrus.

Die christliche Religion basiert auf den Lehren Jesu Christi , der im 1. Jahrhundert n. Chr. In der Provinz Judäa des Römischen Reiches lebte und predigte . Die katholische Theologie lehrt, dass die zeitgenössische katholische Kirche die Fortsetzung dieser von Jesus gegründeten frühchristlichen Gemeinschaft ist. [10] Das Christentum verbreitete sich trotz Verfolgungen aufgrund von Konflikten mit der heidnischen Staatsreligion im gesamten frühen Römischen Reich. Kaiser Konstantin legalisierte die Praxis des Christentums im Jahr 313 und wurde im Jahr 380 zur Staatsreligion. Germanische Invasoren des römischen Territoriums im 5. und 6. Jahrhundert, von denen viele zuvor das arianische Christentum angenommen hatten, nahm schließlich den Katholizismus an, um sich mit dem Papsttum und den Klöstern zu verbünden.

Im 7. und 8. Jahrhundert führten die zunehmenden muslimischen Eroberungen nach dem Aufkommen des Islam zu einer arabischen Herrschaft über das Mittelmeer, die die politischen Verbindungen zwischen diesem Gebiet und Nordeuropa trennte und die kulturellen Verbindungen zwischen Rom und dem Byzantinischen Reich schwächte . Konflikte mit Autorität in der Kirche , insbesondere die Autorität des Bischofs von Rom, gipfelten schließlich im 11. Jahrhundert im Ost-West-Schisma und spalteten die Kirche in katholische und orthodoxe Kirchen auf. Frühere Spaltungen innerhalb der Kirche erfolgten nach dem Konzil von Ephesus (431) und dem Konzil von Chalcedon(451). Einige östliche Kirchen blieben jedoch in Gemeinschaft mit Rom, und Teile einiger anderer gründeten im 15. Jahrhundert und später eine Gemeinschaft, die sogenannte ostkatholische Kirchen bildeten.

Frühe Klöster in ganz Europa trugen zur Erhaltung der klassischen griechischen und römischen Zivilisation bei . Die Kirche wurde schließlich der dominierende Einfluss in der westlichen Zivilisation bis in die Moderne. Viele Renaissancefiguren wurden von der Kirche gesponsert. Das 16. Jahrhundert sah jedoch Herausforderungen für die Kirche, insbesondere für ihre religiöse Autorität, durch Persönlichkeiten der protestantischen Reformation sowie im 17. Jahrhundert durch weltliche Intellektuelle in der Aufklärung. Gleichzeitig verbreiteten spanische und portugiesische Entdecker und Missionare den Einfluss der Kirche in Afrika, Asien und der Neuen Welt .

1870 erklärte das Erste Vatikanische Konzil das Dogma der päpstlichen Unfehlbarkeit und das Königreich Italien annektierte die Stadt Rom, den letzten Teil der päpstlichen Staaten , der in die neue Nation eingegliedert wurde. Im 20. Jahrhundert verfolgten oder hingerichteten antiklerikale Regierungen auf der ganzen Welt, einschließlich Mexiko und Spanien, Tausende von Geistlichen und Laien. Im Zweiten Weltkrieg verurteilte die Kirche den Nationalsozialismus und schützte Hunderttausende Juden vor dem Holocaust . Ihre Bemühungen wurden jedoch als unzureichend kritisiert. Nach dem Krieg war die Religionsfreiheit in den kommunistischen Ländern, die neu an der Sowjetunion ausgerichtet waren, stark eingeschränktEinige von ihnen hatten eine große katholische Bevölkerung.

In den 1960er Jahren führte das Zweite Vatikanische Konzil zu Reformen der Liturgie und Praktiken der Kirche, die von Verteidigern als "Fenster öffnen" bezeichnet, von traditionalistischen Katholiken jedoch kritisiert wurden . Angesichts der zunehmenden Kritik von innen und außen hat die Kirche zu verschiedenen Zeiten kontroverse Lehrpositionen in Bezug auf Sexualität und Geschlecht bestätigt oder bekräftigt, einschließlich der Beschränkung der Geistlichkeit auf Männer und moralischer Ermahnungen gegen Abtreibung , Empfängnisverhütung , sexuelle Aktivitäten außerhalb der Ehe und Wiederverheiratung nach Scheidung ohne Aufhebung und gegen gleichgeschlechtliche Ehe .

Apostolische Ära und Papsttum

Jesu Auftrag an den heiligen Petrus

Das Neue Testament , insbesondere die Evangelien , dokumentiert die Aktivitäten und Lehren Jesu, seine Ernennung der Zwölf Apostel und seinen Großen Auftrag der Apostel und weist sie an, seine Arbeit fortzusetzen. [36] [37] Das Buch Apostelgeschichte berichtet von der Gründung der christlichen Kirche und der Verbreitung ihrer Botschaft an das Römische Reich. [38] Die katholische Kirche lehrt, dass ihr öffentlicher Dienst zu Pfingsten begann und fünfzig Tage nach dem Datum stattfand, an dem Christus vermutlich auferstanden ist . [39]Zu Pfingsten sollen die Apostel den Heiligen Geist empfangen und sie auf ihre Mission vorbereitet haben, die Kirche zu führen. [40] [41] Die katholische Kirche lehrt, dass das Bischofskollegium unter der Leitung des Bischofs von Rom die Nachfolger der Apostel sind. [42]

In dem Bericht über das Bekenntnis von Petrus im Matthäusevangelium bezeichnet Christus Petrus als den "Felsen", auf dem die Kirche Christi gebaut wird. [43] [44] Die katholische Kirche betrachtet den Bischof von Rom, den Papst, als Nachfolger des heiligen Petrus . [45] Einige Gelehrte geben an, dass Peter der erste Bischof von Rom war. [46] [Anmerkung 5] Andere sagen, dass die Einrichtung des Papsttums nicht von der Vorstellung abhängt, dass Peter Bischof von Rom war oder sogar davon, jemals in Rom gewesen zu sein. [47]Viele Gelehrte sind der Ansicht, dass eine kirchliche Struktur von mehreren Presbyter / Bischöfen in Rom bis zur Mitte des 2. Jahrhunderts bestand, als die Struktur eines einzelnen Bischofs und mehrerer Presbyter angenommen wurde [48], und dass spätere Schriftsteller den Begriff "Bischof von Rom" rückwirkend verwendeten "an die prominentesten Mitglieder des Klerus in der früheren Zeit und auch an Peter selbst. [48] Auf dieser Grundlage Oscar Cullmann , [49] Henry Chadwick , [50] und Bart D. Ehrman [51] Frage , ob es eine formelle Verbindung zwischen Peter und dem modernen Papsttum war. Raymond E. Brownsagt auch, dass es anachronistisch ist, von Peter in Bezug auf den örtlichen Bischof von Rom zu sprechen, aber dass Christen dieser Zeit Peter als "Rollen angesehen hätten, die in wesentlicher Weise zur Entwicklung der Rolle des Papsttums in Rom beitragen würden die nachfolgende Kirche ". Diese Rollen, sagt Brown, "haben enorm dazu beigetragen, den Bischof von Rom, den Bischof der Stadt, in der Petrus starb und in der Paulus die Wahrheit Christi bezeugte, als Nachfolger von Petrus zu sehen, der sich um die universelle Kirche kümmert". [48]

Antike und Römisches Reich

Die Bedingungen im Römischen Reich erleichterten die Verbreitung neuer Ideen. Das Netz von Straßen und Wasserstraßen des Imperiums erleichterte das Reisen, und die Pax Romana machte das Reisen sicher. Das Reich förderte die Verbreitung einer gemeinsamen Kultur mit griechischen Wurzeln, die es ermöglichte, Ideen leichter auszudrücken und zu verstehen. [52]

Im Gegensatz zu den meisten Religionen im Römischen Reich verlangte das Christentum jedoch von seinen Anhängern, auf alle anderen Götter zu verzichten, eine Praxis, die vom Judentum übernommen wurde (siehe Götzendienst ). Die Weigerung der Christen, an heidnischen Feiern teilzunehmen, bedeutete, dass sie nicht in der Lage waren, an einem Großteil des öffentlichen Lebens teilzunehmen, was dazu führte, dass Nichtchristen - einschließlich Regierungsbehörden - befürchteten, dass die Christen die Götter verärgerten und damit den Frieden und den Wohlstand des Reiches bedrohten. Die daraus resultierenden Verfolgungen waren ein bestimmendes Merkmal des christlichen Selbstverständnisses, bis das Christentum im 4. Jahrhundert legalisiert wurde. [53]

Zeichnung des alten Petersdoms aus dem 19. Jahrhundert , ursprünglich 318 von Kaiser Konstantin erbaut

Im Jahr 313 Kaiser Konstantin I ‚s Edikt von Mailand legalisiert Christentum und in 330 bewegte Konstantin die Reichshauptstadt zu Constantinople , modernes Istanbul, Türkei . 380 machte das Edikt von Thessaloniki das Nicene-Christentum zur Staatskirche des Römischen Reiches , eine Position, die innerhalb des abnehmenden Territoriums des Byzantinischen Reiches bestehen blieb, bis das Reich selbst im Fall von Konstantinopel im Jahre 1453 endete , während die Kirche an anderer Stelle unabhängig war das Reich, wie besonders mit dem Ost-West-Schisma deutlich wurde . Während des Zeitraums derEs entstanden sieben Ökumenische Konzile , fünf Hauptversammlungen, eine Vereinbarung, die Mitte des 6. Jahrhunderts von Kaiser Justinian I. als Pentarchie von Rom, Konstantinopel , Antiochia , Jerusalem und Alexandria formalisiert wurde . [54] [55] 451 erhöhte das Konzil von Chalcedon in einem Kanon von umstrittener Gültigkeit [56] den Sitz von Konstantinopel auf eine Position, die "dem Bischof von Rom an zweiter Stelle in Bezug auf Eminenz und Macht" stand. [57] Aus c. 350 bis c. 500, die Bischöfe oder Päpste von Rom, nahmen durch ihre konsequente Intervention zur Unterstützung stetig an Autorität zuorthodoxe Führer in theologischen Streitigkeiten, die zu Appellen an sie ermutigten. [58] Kaiser Justinian , der in den von ihm kontrollierten Gebieten endgültig eine Form des Cäsaropapismus etablierte , [59] in der "er das Recht und die Pflicht hatte, durch seine Gesetze die kleinsten Einzelheiten der Anbetung und Disziplin zu regeln und auch die zu diktieren theologische Meinungen, die in der Kirche zu vertreten sind " [60], stellten die kaiserliche Macht über Rom und andere Teile des Westens wieder her und leiteten die als byzantinisches Papsttum bezeichnete Zeit ein(537-752), bei dem die Bischöfe von Rom, oder Päpsten, erforderliche Genehmigung vom Kaiser in Konstantinopel oder von seinem Vertreter in Ravenna zur Weihe und die meisten des Kaiser von seinem griechischsprachigen Probanden ausgewählt wurden, [61] resultierende in einem "Schmelztiegel" westlicher und östlicher christlicher Traditionen in Kunst und Liturgie. [62]

Die meisten germanischen Stämme, die in den folgenden Jahrhunderten in das Römische Reich einfielen, hatten das Christentum in seiner arianischen Form angenommen, die die katholische Kirche für ketzerisch erklärte . [63] Die daraus resultierende religiöse Zwietracht zwischen germanischen Herrschern und katholischen Untertanen [64] wurde vermieden, als Clovis I. , der fränkische Herrscher, 497 zum orthodoxen Katholizismus konvertierte und sich mit dem Papsttum und den Klöstern verbündete. [65] Die Westgoten in Spanien folgte seinem Beispiel in 589, [66] und die Langobarden in Italien im Laufe des 7. Jahrhunderts. [67]

Das westliche Christentum , insbesondere durch seine Klöster , war ein wesentlicher Faktor für die Erhaltung der klassischen Zivilisation mit ihrer Kunst (siehe beleuchtetes Manuskript ) und ihrer Alphabetisierung. [68] [69] Durch seine Regel , Benedikt von Nursia (c. 480-543), einer der Gründer der abendländischen Mönchtums , einen enormen Einfluss auf die europäische Kultur durch die Verwendung des Kloster geistige Erbe der frühen katholischen Kirche ausgeübt und mit der Verbreitung der benediktinischen Tradition durch die Bewahrung und Weitergabe der alten Kultur. Während dieser Zeit wurde das klösterliche Irland zu einem Lernzentrum und frühen irischen Missionaren wieColumbanus und Columba verbreiteten das Christentum und gründeten Klöster in ganz Kontinentaleuropa. [1]

Mittelalter und Renaissance

Kathedrale von Chartres , 1220

Die katholische Kirche war der dominierende Einfluss auf die westliche Zivilisation von der Spätantike bis zum Beginn der Moderne. [8] Es war der Hauptsponsor der romanischen, gotischen, Renaissance-, manieristischen und barocken Stile in Kunst, Architektur und Musik. [70] Renaissancefiguren wie Raphael , Michelangelo , Leonardo da Vinci , Botticelli , Fra Angelico , Tintoretto , Tizian , Bernini und Caravaggio sind Beispiele für die zahlreichen von der Kirche gesponserten bildenden Künstler. [71] Historiker Paul Legutko vonDie Stanford University sagte, die katholische Kirche stehe "im Zentrum der Entwicklung der Werte, Ideen, Wissenschaft, Gesetze und Institutionen, die das ausmachen, was wir westliche Zivilisation nennen ". [72]

Die massiven islamischen Invasionen Mitte des 7. Jahrhunderts begannen einen langen Kampf zwischen Christentum und Islam im gesamten Mittelmeerraum. Das Byzantinische Reich verlor bald das Land der östlichen Patriarchate von Jerusalem , Alexandria und Antiochia und wurde auf das von Konstantinopel , der Hauptstadt des Reiches, reduziert . Infolge der islamischen Herrschaft über das Mittelmeer konnte sich der von diesem Meer entfernte fränkische Staat als die dominierende Macht entwickeln, die das Westeuropa des Mittelalters prägte. [73] Die Schlachten von Toulouse undPoitiers stoppte den islamischen Vormarsch im Westen und die gescheiterte Belagerung von Konstantinopel stoppte ihn im Osten. Zwei oder drei Jahrzehnte später, 751, verlor das Byzantinische Reich die Stadt Ravenna an die Langobarden, von der aus es die kleinen Fragmente Italiens regierte , einschließlich Roms, die seine Souveränität anerkannten. Der Fall von Ravenna bedeutete, dass bei den Wahlen von Papst Stephen II. Im Jahr 752 keine Bestätigung durch einen nicht mehr existierenden Exarchen verlangt wurde und dass das Papsttum gezwungen war, anderswo nach einer zivilen Macht zu suchen, um es zu schützen. [74] 754 eroberte der fränkische König Pepin der Kurze auf dringenden Wunsch von Papst Stephan die Langobarden. Er hat dann begabtdie Länder des ehemaligen Exarchats an den Papst, wodurch die Kirchenstaaten initiiert wurden . Rom und der byzantinische Osten würden sich während des Photian-Schismas der 860er Jahre mit weiteren Konflikten befassen , als Photius den lateinischen Westen kritisierte, die Filioque- Klausel hinzuzufügen , nachdem er von Nikolaus I. exkommuniziert worden war . Obwohl das Schisma in Einklang gebracht wurde, würden ungelöste Probleme zu einer weiteren Spaltung führen. [75]

Im 11. Jahrhundert führten die Bemühungen von Hildebrand von Sovana zur Gründung des Kardinalskollegiums zur Wahl neuer Päpste, beginnend mit Papst Alexander II. Bei den Papstwahlen von 1061 . Als Alexander II. Starb, wurde Hildebrand als Nachfolger von Papst Gregor VII . Gewählt . Das grundlegende Wahlsystem des Kardinalskollegiums, an dessen Aufbau Gregor VII. Mitgewirkt hat, hat bis ins 21. Jahrhundert hinein funktioniert. Papst Gregor VII. Initiierte ferner die gregorianischen Reformen zur Unabhängigkeit des Klerus von der weltlichen Autorität. Dies führte zu der Investiturstreitigkeit zwischen der Kirche und den Heiligen Römischen Kaisern, über die die Befugnis hatte, Bischöfe und Päpste zu ernennen. [76] [77]

Im Jahre 1095, byzantinische Kaiser Alexios I. zu appellierte Papst Urban II um Hilfe gegen erneute muslimischen Invasionen in den byzantinisch-Seldschuken Kriege , [78] , die Stadt verursachte den starten ersten Kreuzzug auf Unterstützung des Byzantinischen Reiches und der Rückkehr der Ziel Heilige Land zu Christian Kontrolle . [79] Im 11. Jahrhundert trennten sie die angespannten Beziehungen zwischen der hauptsächlich griechischen Kirche und der lateinischen Kirche im Ost-West-Schisma , was teilweise auf Konflikte um die päpstliche Autorität zurückzuführen war . Der vierte Kreuzzugund die Entlassung Konstantinopels durch abtrünnige Kreuzfahrer erwies sich als endgültiger Verstoß. [80] In dieser Zeit waren große gotische Kathedralen in Frankreich Ausdruck des Stolzes der Bevölkerung auf den christlichen Glauben.

Im frühen 13. Jahrhundert wurden Bettelorden von Franz von Assisi und Dominic de Guzmán gegründet . Die Studia Conventualia und Studia Generalia der Bettelorden spielten eine große Rolle bei der Umwandlung von kirchlich geförderten Dom- und Schlossschulen wie der von Karl dem Großen in Aachen in die bedeutenden Universitäten Europas. [81] Scholastische Theologen und Philosophen wie der Dominikanerpriester Thomas von Aquin studierten und lehrten in diesen Studien. Suminas Theologica von Aquinwar ein intellektueller Meilenstein in seiner Synthese des Erbes antiker griechischer Philosophen wie Platon und Aristoteles mit dem Inhalt der christlichen Offenbarung. [82]

Ein wachsendes Gefühl für Konflikte zwischen Kirche und Staat kennzeichnete das 14. Jahrhundert. Um der Instabilität in Rom zu entgehen, lebte Clemens V. 1309 als erster von sieben Päpsten in der als Avignon-Papsttum bekannten Zeit in der befestigten Stadt Avignon in Südfrankreich [83] . Das Papsttum von Avignon endete 1376, als der Papst nach Rom zurückkehrte [84] , 1378 folgte jedoch das 38 Jahre lange westliche Schisma mit Antragstellern des Papsttums in Rom, Avignon und (nach 1409) Pisa. [84] Die Angelegenheit wurde 1415–17 im Konstanzer Rat weitgehend geklärtDie Antragsteller in Rom und Pisa stimmten dem Rücktritt zu, und der dritte Antragsteller wurde von den Kardinälen exkommuniziert, die eine Neuwahl mit dem Namen Martin V. Papst abhielten. [85]

Die Renaissance war ein goldenes Zeitalter für die katholische Kunst . Im Bild: die Decke der Sixtinischen Kapelle von Michelangelo

1438 trat der Rat von Florenz zusammen , der einen intensiven Dialog mit dem Ziel beinhaltete, die theologischen Unterschiede zwischen Ost und West zu verstehen, mit der Hoffnung, die katholische und die orthodoxe Kirche wieder zu vereinen. [86] Mehrere östliche Kirchen kamen wieder zusammen und bildeten die Mehrheit der ostkatholischen Kirchen . [87]

Zeitalter der Entdeckung

Im Zeitalter der Entdeckung, das im 15. Jahrhundert begann, nahm der politische und kulturelle Einfluss Westeuropas weltweit zu. Aufgrund der herausragenden Rolle der stark katholischen Nationen Spaniens und Portugals im westlichen Kolonialismus wurde der Katholizismus von Forschern, Eroberern und Missionaren sowie durch die Transformation von Gesellschaften durch gesellschaftspolitische Mechanismen auf Amerika, Asien und Ozeanien übertragen der Kolonialherrschaft. Papst Alexander VI. Hatte Spanien und Portugal Kolonialrechte über die meisten neu entdeckten Gebiete zuerkannt [88], und das sich daraus ergebende Patronatosystem ermöglichte es den staatlichen Behörden, nicht dem Vatikan, alle geistlichen Ernennungen in den neuen Kolonien zu kontrollieren.[89] 1521 machte der portugiesische Entdecker Ferdinand Magellan die ersten katholischen Konvertiten auf den Philippinen . [90] In anderen Ländern evangelisiertenportugiesische Missionare unter dem spanischen Jesuiten Francis Xavier in Indien, China und Japan. [91] Die französische Kolonialisierung Amerikas ab dem 16. Jahrhundert begründete eine römisch-katholische frankophone Bevölkerung und verbot Nichtkatholiken, sich in Quebec niederzulassen. [92]

Protestantische Reformation und Gegenreformation

Martin Luther , ursprünglich ein Augustinermönch , veröffentlichte 1517 die fünfundneunzig Thesen .

Im Jahr 1415 wurde Jan Hus wegen Häresie auf dem Scheiterhaufen verbrannt, aber seine Reformbemühungen ermutigten Martin Luther , einen Augustinermönch im heutigen Deutschland, der 1517 seine fünfundneunzig Thesen an mehrere Bischöfe sandte . [93] Seine Thesen protestierten gegen den Schlüssel Punkte der katholischen Lehre sowie der Verkauf von Ablässen und mit der entlangen Leipzigeren Disputation dies sein führte Exkommunikation in 1521. [93] [94] in Schweiz , Huldrych Zwingli , John Calvin und anderen Reformatorenweiter kritisiert katholische Lehren. Diese Herausforderungen entwickelten sich zur Reformation, die die große Mehrheit der protestantischen Konfessionen [95] und auch den Krypto-Protestantismus innerhalb der katholischen Kirche hervorbrachte . [96] In der Zwischenzeit beantragte Heinrich VIII. Beim Papst eine Nichtigkeitserklärung bezüglich seiner Ehe mit Katharina von Aragon . Als dies abgelehnt wurde, ließ er die Acts of Supremacy verabschieden, um ihn zum Chef der Church of England zu machen , was die englische Reformation und die spätere Entwicklung des Anglikanismus anspornte . [97]

Die Reformation trug zu Zusammenstößen zwischen dem protestantischen Schmalkaldischen Bund und dem katholischen Kaiser Karl V. und seinen Verbündeten bei. Der erste neunjährige Krieg endete 1555 mit dem Augsburger Frieden, aber anhaltende Spannungen führten zu einem weitaus schwerwiegenderen Konflikt - dem Dreißigjährigen Krieg -, der 1618 ausbrach. [98] In Frankreich wurde eine Reihe von Konflikten als Französische Kriege bezeichnet Die Religion wurde von 1562 bis 1598 zwischen den Hugenotten (französischen Calvinisten ) und den Kräften der französischen katholischen Liga gekämpft , die von einer Reihe von Päpsten unterstützt und finanziert wurden. [99] Dies endete unterPapst Clemens VIII. , Der zögernd das Edikt von Nantes von König Heinrich IV. Von 1598 akzeptierte , das französischen Protestanten bürgerliche und religiöse Toleranz gewährte . [98] [99]

Das Konzil von Trient (1545–1563) wurde als Reaktion auf die protestantische Bewegung zur treibenden Kraft hinter der Gegenreformation . Doktrinell bekräftigte es zentral-katholische Lehren wie Transsubstantiation und das Erfordernis von Liebe und Hoffnung sowie Glauben, um Erlösung zu erlangen. [100] In den folgenden Jahrhunderten verbreitete sich der Katholizismus auf der ganzen Welt, teilweise durch Missionare und Imperialismus , obwohl sein Einfluss auf die europäische Bevölkerung aufgrund der zunehmenden religiösen Skepsis während und nach der Aufklärung zurückging . [101]

Aufklärung und Neuzeit

Ruinen der Jesuitenreduktion in São Miguel das Missões in Brasilien

Ab dem 17. Jahrhundert stellte die Aufklärung die Macht und den Einfluss der katholischen Kirche auf die westliche Gesellschaft in Frage. [102] Im 18. Jahrhundert schrieben Schriftsteller wie Voltaire und die Encyclopédistes beißende Kritiken sowohl der Religion als auch der katholischen Kirche. Ein Ziel ihrer Kritik war die Aufhebung des Edikts von Nantes durch König Ludwig XIV. Von Frankreich im Jahr 1685 , die eine jahrhundertelange Politik der religiösen Toleranz gegenüber protestantischen Hugenotten beendete. Als sich das Papsttum den Bemühungen um den Gallikanismus widersetzte , verlagerte die Französische Revolution von 1789 die Macht auf den Staat, verursachte die Zerstörung der Kirchen und die Gründung einesCult of Reason , [103] und das Martyrium der Nonnen während der Herrschaft des Terrors . [104] 1798 fiel Napoleon Bonapartes General Louis-Alexandre Berthier in die italienische Halbinsel ein und sperrte Papst Pius VI. Ein , der in Gefangenschaft starb. Napoleon gründete später die katholische Kirche in Frankreich durch das Konkordat von 1801 wieder . [105] Das Ende der Napoleonischen Kriege brachte die katholische Wiederbelebung und die Rückkehr der Kirchenstaaten . [106]

1854 proklamierte Papst Pius IX . Mit Unterstützung der überwiegenden Mehrheit der katholischen Bischöfe, die er von 1851 bis 1853 konsultiert hatte, die Unbefleckte Empfängnis als Dogma in der katholischen Kirche . [107] 1870 bekräftigte das Erste Vatikanische Konzil die Doktrin der päpstlichen Unfehlbarkeit, wenn sie in spezifisch definierten Verlautbarungen ausgeübt wurde, [108] [109] und schlug der rivalisierenden Position des Konziliarismus einen Schlag zu . Kontroversen über dieses und andere Themen führten zu einer abtrünnigen Bewegung namens Altkatholische Kirche . [110]

Die italienische Vereinigung der 1860er Jahre brachte die Kirchenstaaten, einschließlich Rom selbst, ab 1870 in das Königreich Italien ein und beendete damit die zeitliche Macht des Papsttums . Als Reaktion darauf exkommunizierte Papst Pius IX. König Viktor Emanuel II. , Verweigerte die Zahlung des Landes und lehnte das italienische Garantiegesetz ab , das ihm besondere Privilegien gewährte. Um sich nicht sichtbar den italienischen Behörden zu unterwerfen, blieb er ein " Gefangener im Vatikan ". [111] Diese Pattsituation, die als römische Frage bezeichnet wurde , wurde durch die Lateranverträge von 1929 gelöst, wobei der Heilige Stuhl die italienische Souveränität über die ehemaligen päpstlichen Staaten als Gegenleistung für die Zahlung anerkannte und Italien die päpstliche Souveränität über die Vatikanstadt als neuen souveränen und unabhängigen Staat anerkannte. [112]

20. Jahrhundert

Während des Ersten Weltkriegs kamen zahlreiche Friedensaufrufe von der katholischen Kirche. Die Initiative "Dès le début" von Papst Benedikt XV. Vom 1. August 1917 scheiterte an der Ablehnung der Kriegsparteien. [113]

Im 20. Jahrhundert entstand eine Reihe von antiklerikalen Regierungen. Das Calles-Gesetz von 1926 , das Kirche und Staat in Mexiko trennte, führte zum Cristero-Krieg [114], in dem mehr als 3.000 Priester verbannt oder ermordet, [115] Kirchen entweiht, Gottesdienste verspottet, Nonnen vergewaltigt und Priester erschossen wurden. [114] Nach der Oktoberrevolution von 1917 setzte sich die Verfolgung der Kirche und der Katholiken in der Sowjetunion bis in die 1930er Jahre fort, mit der Hinrichtung und Verbannung von Geistlichen, Mönchen und Laien, der Beschlagnahme religiöser Geräte und der Schließung von Kirchen. [116] [117] Im spanischen Bürgerkrieg von 1936 bis 1939Die katholische Hierarchie verbündete sich mit Francos Nationalisten gegen die Regierung der Volksfront [118] und führte als Rechtfertigung die Gewalt der Republikaner gegen die Kirche an. [119] [120] Papst Pius XI. Bezeichnete diese drei Länder als "schreckliches Dreieck". [121] [122]

Während die Kirche heftig kritisiert wird, zu wenig gegen den Holocaust , den Krieg und die Nazis getan zu haben , halfen einzelne katholische Widerstandsgruppen wie die von Priester Heinrich Maier angeführte den Verbündeten, die V-2 zu bekämpfen, die von KZ- Häftlingen produziert wurde .

Nach Verstößen gegen das Reichskonkordat von 1933 zwischen der Kirche und Nazideutschland veröffentlichte Papst Pius XI . 1937 die Enzyklika Mit brennender Sorge , in der die Verfolgung der Kirche durch die Nazis und ihre Ideologie des Neo-Heidentums und der Rassenüberlegenheit öffentlich verurteilt wurden . [123] [124] [125] Die Kirche verurteilte die Invasion Polens 1939 , die den Zweiten Weltkrieg und andere nachfolgende Invasionen der Nazis während des Krieges auslöste . [126]Tausende katholische Priester, Nonnen und Brüder wurden in den von den Nazis besetzten Ländern inhaftiert oder in ein Konzentrationslager gebracht, gefoltert und ermordet, darunter die Heiligen Maximilian Kolbe und Edith Stein . [127] [128]

Es ging nicht nur um passiven Widerstand, sondern auch darum, den Nationalsozialismus aktiv zu besiegen . Zum Beispiel gab die katholische Widerstandsgruppe um den Priester Heinrich Maier , der oft als Miles Christi bezeichnet wurde, sehr erfolgreich Pläne und Produktionsanlagen für fliegende V-1-Bomben , V-2-Raketen , Tigerpanzer , Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet und weiter andere Flugzeuge an die Alliierten, mit denen sie auf deutsche Produktionsstätten zielen konnten. Maier und seine Gruppe informierten den amerikanischen Geheimdienst OSS sehr früh über den Massenmord an Juden in Auschwitz. [129]

Mitglieder des kanadischen Royal 22 e Regiments in Audienz bei Papst Pius XII . Nach der Befreiung Roms 1944 während des Zweiten Weltkriegs

Um 1943 plante Adolf Hitler die Entführung des Papstes und seine Internierung in Deutschland. Er gab SS-General Wolff den entsprechenden Befehl, sich auf die Aktion vorzubereiten. [130] [131] Während Papst Pius XII. Die Hilfe zur Rettung von Hunderttausenden Juden während des Holocaust zugeschrieben wurde , [132] [133] wurde der Kirche auch vorgeworfen, durch ihre Lehren Jahrhunderte des Antisemitismus gefördert zu haben [134]. und nicht genug tun, um die Gräueltaten der Nazis zu stoppen. [135] Viele Nazi-Kriminelle flohen nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg nach Übersee, auch weil sie mächtige Anhänger aus dem Vatikan hatten.[136] [137] [138] Das Urteil von Pius XII. wird durch die Quellen erschwert, weil die Kirchenarchive für seine Amtszeit als Nuntius, Kardinalstaatssekretär und Papst teilweise geschlossen oder noch nicht bearbeitet sind. [139]

Im zerstückelten Jugoslawien favorisierte die Kirche das von den Nazis installierte kroatische römisch-katholische faschistische Ustaše- Regime aufgrund seiner antikommunistischen Ideologie und des Potenzials, den katholischen Einfluss in der Region nach der Auflösung von Österreich-Ungarn wiederherzustellen . [140] Der Unabhängige Staat Kroatien (NDH) wurde jedoch nicht offiziell anerkannt . [140] Obwohl die Kirche über den Völkermord des Regimes an orthodoxen Serben , Juden und anderen Nichtkroaten informiert wurde , sprach sie sich nicht öffentlich dagegen aus und zog es vor, Druck durch Diplomatie auszuüben. [141] Bei der Beurteilung der Position des Vatikans, HistorikerJozo Tomasevich schreibt: "Es scheint, dass die katholische Kirche das [Ustaše] -Regime und seine Politik voll und ganz unterstützt hat." [142]

In der Nachkriegszeit schränkten die kommunistischen Regierungen in Mittel- und Osteuropa die Religionsfreiheit stark ein. [143] Obwohl einige Priester und religiöse Menschen mit kommunistischen Regimen zusammenarbeiteten, [144] wurden viele andere inhaftiert, deportiert oder hingerichtet. Die Kirche war ein wichtiger Akteur im Fall des Kommunismus in Europa, insbesondere in der polnischen Volksrepublik . [145]

1949 führte der kommunistische Sieg im chinesischen Bürgerkrieg zur Vertreibung aller ausländischen Missionare. [146] Die neue Regierung schuf auch die Patriotische Kirche und ernannte ihre Bischöfe. Diese Ernennungen wurden zunächst von Rom abgelehnt, bevor viele von ihnen angenommen wurden. [147] [ bessere Quelle benötigt ] In den 1960er Jahren während der Kulturrevolution schlossen die chinesischen Kommunisten alle religiösen Einrichtungen. Als die chinesischen Kirchen schließlich wiedereröffnet wurden, blieben sie unter der Kontrolle der Patriotischen Kirche. Viele katholische Pastoren und Priester wurden weiterhin ins Gefängnis geschickt, weil sie sich geweigert hatten, Rom die Treue zu halten. [148]

Zweites Vatikanum

Die Bischöfe hören während des Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils zu

Das Zweite Vatikanische Konzil (1962–1965) führte die bedeutendsten Änderungen der katholischen Praktiken seit dem Konzil von Trient vor vier Jahrhunderten ein. [149] Dieser von Papst Johannes XXIII. Initiierte ökumenische Rat modernisierte die Praktiken der katholischen Kirche, indem er die Messe in der Landessprache (Landessprache) hielt und zur "voll bewussten und aktiven Teilnahme an liturgischen Feiern" ermutigte. [150] Sie beabsichtigte, die Kirche enger mit der heutigen Welt ( aggiornamento ) zu verbinden, die von ihren Befürwortern als "Öffnen der Fenster" beschrieben wurde. [151]Zusätzlich zu den Veränderungen in der Liturgie, führte es zu Änderungen an den Ansatz der Kirche Ökumene , [152] und ein Aufruf zu einem verbesserten Beziehungen zu dem nichtchristlichen Religionen, insbesondere das Judentum , in ihrem Dokument Nostra aetate . [153]

Der Rat löste jedoch erhebliche Kontroversen bei der Umsetzung seiner Reformen aus: Befürworter des " Geistes des Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils " wie der Schweizer Theologe Hans Küng sagten, der Zweite Vatikan sei "nicht weit genug gegangen", um die Kirchenpolitik zu ändern. [154] Traditionalistische Katholiken wie Erzbischof Marcel Lefebvre kritisierten den Rat jedoch scharf und argumentierten, dass seine liturgischen Reformen unter anderem "zur Zerstörung des Heiligen Messopfers und der Sakramente" führten. [155]

Mehrere Lehren der katholischen Kirche wurden sowohl gleichzeitig als auch nach dem Konzil einer genaueren Prüfung unterzogen. Zu diesen Lehren gehörte die Lehre der Kirche über die Unmoral der Empfängnisverhütung . Die jüngste Einführung der hormonellen Empfängnisverhütung (einschließlich "der Pille"), von der einige glaubten, dass sie sich moralisch von früheren Methoden unterscheidet, veranlasste Johannes XXIII., Ein Komitee zu bilden, das ihn über die moralischen und theologischen Fragen der neuen Methode berät. [156] [157] Papst Paul VISpäter erweiterte er den Anwendungsbereich des Ausschusses, um alle Methoden frei zu prüfen, und es wurde gemunkelt, dass der unveröffentlichte Abschlussbericht des Ausschusses vorschlug, zumindest einige Verhütungsmethoden zuzulassen. Paulus stimmte den vorgebrachten Argumenten nicht zu und gab schließlich einen Lebenslauf heraus , in dem er sagte, dass er die ständige Lehre der Kirche gegen Empfängnisverhütung aufrechterhalte. Es enthielt ausdrücklich hormonelle Methoden als verboten. [Anmerkung 6] Dieses Dokument stieß bei vielen Katholiken auf eine weitgehend negative Resonanz. [ von wem? ] [158]

Johannes Paul II

Papst Johannes Paul II. Wurde als maßgeblicher Einflussfaktor für das Ende des Kalten Krieges und den Fall des Kommunismus angesehen . Hier mit US-Präsident Ronald Reagan und seiner Frau Nancy im Jahr 1982.

1978 wurde Papst Johannes Paul II. , Ehemals Erzbischof von Krakau in der Polnischen Volksrepublik , der erste nichtitalienische Papst seit 455 Jahren. Sein 26 1/2-jähriges Pontifikat war eines der längsten in der Geschichte. [159] Michail Gorbatschow , der Präsident der Sowjetunion , beschuldigte den polnischen Papst, den Fall des Kommunismus in Europa beschleunigt zu haben. [160]

Johannes Paul II. Versuchte, eine zunehmend säkulare Welt zu evangelisieren . Er führte den Weltjugendtag als "weltweite Begegnung mit dem Papst" für junge Menschen ein. es findet jetzt alle zwei bis drei Jahre statt. [161] Er reiste mehr als jeder andere Papst, besuchte 129 Länder [162] und nutzte Fernsehen und Radio, um die Lehren der Kirche zu verbreiten. Er betonte auch die Würde der Arbeit und die natürlichen Rechte der Arbeiter auf faire Löhne und sichere Bedingungen bei Laborem-Übungen . [163] Er betonte mehrere kirchliche Lehren, einschließlich moralischer Ermahnungen gegen Abtreibung und Sterbehilfeund gegen die weit verbreitete Anwendung der Todesstrafe in Evangelium Vitae . [164]

Ab dem späten 20. Jahrhundert wurde die katholische Kirche wegen ihrer Lehren über Sexualität , ihrer Unfähigkeit, Frauen zu ordinieren , und ihrer Behandlung von Fällen sexuellen Missbrauchs kritisiert .

21. Jahrhundert

1992 erkannte der Vatikan seinen Fehler bei der Verfolgung von Galileo 359 Jahre zuvor an, um zu beweisen, dass sich die Erde um die Sonne dreht. [165] [166]

Nach dem Tod von Johannes Paul II. Wurde 2005 Papst Benedikt XVI. , Leiter der Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre unter Johannes Paul, gewählt. Er wurde für die Aufrechterhaltung der traditionellen bekannten christlichen Werte gegen die Säkularisierung , [167] und zur Steigerung der Nutzung der tridentinischen Messe wie in dem gefundenen römischen Missale von 1962 [168] Im Jahr 2012 der 50. Jahrestag des Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils, eine Versammlung der Synode Die Bischöfe diskutierten über die Reevangelisierung verfallener Katholiken in den Industrieländern . [169] Unter Berufung auf die Schwächen des fortgeschrittenen Alters, Benedikttrat 2013 zurück und war damit der erste Papst seit fast 600 Jahren. [170]

Papst Franziskus

Papst Franziskus, der derzeitige Papst der katholischen Kirche, trat 2013 die Nachfolge von Papst Benedikt XVI. Als erster Papst Amerikas , erster aus der südlichen Hemisphäre und erster Papst außerhalb Europas seit dem syrischen Gregor III. An , der am 8. regierte Jahrhundert. Papst Franziskus ist bekannt für seine Demut , die Betonung der Barmherzigkeit Gottes, die Sorge um die Armen und die Umwelt sowie sein Engagement für den interreligiösen Dialog . Ihm wird eine weniger formelle Herangehensweise an das Papsttum zugeschrieben als seinen Vorgängern.

Papst Franziskus wird für seine Bemühungen anerkannt, "die fast 1000-jährige Entfremdung von den orthodoxen Kirchen weiter zu beenden ". [171] An seiner Installation nahm Patriarch Bartholomäus I. von Konstantinopel der Ostorthodoxen Kirche teil , [172] das erste Mal seit dem großen Schisma von 1054, dass der Ostorthodoxe Ökumenische Patriarch von Konstantinopel an einer päpstlichen Installation teilnahm. [173] Am 12. Februar 2016 Papst Francis und Patriarch Kirill von Moskau , Chef der größten Kirche östlich - orthodoxen, traf in Havanna , Kuba , Ausstellungeine gemeinsame Erklärung zur Wiederherstellung der Einheit der Christen zwischen den beiden Kirchen. Dies wurde als das erste derartige Treffen auf hoher Ebene zwischen den beiden Kirchen seit dem großen Schisma von 1054 gemeldet. [174]

Im Jahr 2014 wandte sich die Dritte Außerordentliche Generalversammlung der Bischofssynode an den Dienst der Kirche gegenüber Familien und Ehen sowie an Katholiken in "unregelmäßigen" Beziehungen, beispielsweise an diejenigen, die sich außerhalb der Kirche ohne Erklärung der Nichtigkeit scheiden ließen und wieder heirateten . [175] [176] Obwohl dies von einigen begrüßt wurde, wurde es von einigen wegen seiner wahrgenommenen Mehrdeutigkeit kritisiert, was zu Kontroversen unter einzelnen Vertretern unterschiedlicher Perspektiven führte. [177]

Während eines Besuchs in Ägypten stellte Papst Franziskus 2017 die gegenseitige Anerkennung der Taufe mit der koptisch-orthodoxen Kirche wieder her . [178]

Organisation

"Ich werde dir die Schlüssel des Himmelreichs geben, und was du auf Erden bindest, wird im Himmel gebunden sein, und was du auf Erden verlierst, wird im Himmel gelöst." Jesus zu Petrus im Matthäusevangelium , 16:19 Die gekreuzten goldenen und silbernen Schlüssel des Heiligen Stuhls symbolisieren die Schlüssel von Simon Petrus und repräsentieren die Macht des päpstlichen Amtes, sich zu lösen und zu binden. Die päpstliche Tiara mit dreifacher Krone symbolisiert die dreifache Macht des Papstes als "Vater der Könige", "Gouverneur der Welt" und "Stellvertreter Christi". Das goldene Kreuz auf einem Monde ( Globus ) über der Tiara symbolisiert die Souveränität Jesu .

Die katholische Kirche folgt einem bischöflichen Gemeinwesen , das von Bischöfen geführt wird, die das Sakrament der Heiligen Befehle erhalten haben und die formelle Zuständigkeiten für die Regierungsführung innerhalb der Kirche erhalten. [179] [180] Es gibt drei Ebenen von Geistlichen, das Episkopat, das sich aus Bischöfen zusammensetzt, die für ein geografisches Gebiet zuständig sind, das als Diözese oder Eparchie bezeichnet wird . das Presbyterat, bestehend aus Priestern, die von Bischöfen ordiniert wurden und in örtlichen Diözesen oder Orden arbeiten; und das Diakonat, bestehend aus Diakonen, die Bischöfe und Priester in verschiedenen Ministerfunktionen unterstützen. Letztendlich führt die gesamte katholische Kirche den Bischof von Rom, der gemeinhin als Papst bezeichnet wird und dessen Gerichtsbarkeit als Bischof bezeichnet wirdHeiliger Stuhl . Parallel zur Diözesanstruktur gibt es eine Vielzahl von religiösen Instituten , die autonom arbeiten und oft nur der Autorität des Papstes unterliegen, manchmal aber auch dem örtlichen Bischof. Die meisten religiösen Institute haben nur männliche oder weibliche Mitglieder, aber einige haben beide. Darüber hinaus unterstützen Laien viele liturgische Funktionen während des Gottesdienstes.

Heiliger Stuhl, Papsttum, Römische Kurie und Kardinalskollegium

Franziskus ist der 266. und derzeitige Papst der katholischen Kirche, ein Titel, den er von Amts wegen als Bischof von Rom und Souverän der Vatikanstadt innehat . Er wurde im päpstlichen Konklave 2013 gewählt .
Erzbasilika des Heiligen Johannes Lateran , die Kathedrale der Diözese Rom

Die Hierarchie der katholischen Kirche wird geleitet [Anmerkung 7] durch den Bischof von Rom , bekannt als der Papst ( lateinisch : Papa , „Vater“), der der Führer der weltweiten katholischen Kirche ist. [186] Der derzeitige Papst Franziskus wurde am 13. März 2013 vom päpstlichen Konklave gewählt . [187]

The office of the pope is known as the papacy. The Catholic Church holds that Christ instituted the papacy upon giving the keys of Heaven to Saint Peter. His ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the "Holy See" (Sancta Sedes in Latin), or the "Apostolic See" (meaning the see of the apostle Peter).[188][189] Directly serving the pope is the Roman Curia, the central governing body that administers the day-to-day business of the Catholic Church.

The pope is also Sovereign of Vatican City,[190] a small city-state entirely enclaved within the city of Rome, which is an entity distinct from the Holy See. It is as head of the Holy See, not as head of Vatican City State, that the pope receives ambassadors of states and sends them his own diplomatic representatives.[191] The Holy See also confers orders, decorations and medals, such as the orders of chivalry originating from the Middle Ages.

While the famous Saint Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, above the traditional site of Saint Peter's tomb, the papal cathedral for the Diocese of Rome is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, located within the city of Rome, though enjoying extraterritorial privileges accredited to the Holy See.

The position of cardinal is a rank of honour bestowed by popes on certain clerics, such as leaders within the Roman Curia, bishops serving in major cities and distinguished theologians. For advice and assistance in governing, the pope may turn to the College of Cardinals.[192]

Following the death or resignation of a pope,[note 8] members of the College of Cardinals who are under age 80 act as an electoral college, meeting in a papal conclave to elect a successor.[194] Although the conclave may elect any male Catholic as pope, since 1389 only cardinals have been elected.[195]

Canon law

Canon law (Latin: jus canonicum)[196] is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organisation and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the church.[197] The canon law of the Latin Church was the first modern Western legal system[198] and is the oldest continuously functioning legal system in the West,[199][200] while the distinctive traditions of Eastern Catholic canon law govern the 23 Eastern Catholic particular churches sui iuris.

Positive ecclesiastical laws, based directly or indirectly upon immutable divine law or natural law, derive formal authority in the case of universal laws from promulgation by the supreme legislator—the Supreme Pontiff—who possesses the totality of legislative, executive and judicial power in his person,[201] while particular laws derive formal authority from promulgation by a legislator inferior to the supreme legislator, whether an ordinary or a delegated legislator. The actual subject material of the canons is not just doctrinal or moral in nature, but all-encompassing of the human condition. It has all the ordinary elements of a mature legal system:[202] laws, courts, lawyers, judges,[202] a fully articulated legal code for the Latin Church[203] as well as a code for the Eastern Catholic Churches,[203] principles of legal interpretation,[204] and coercive penalties.[205][206]

Canon law concerns the Catholic Church's life and organisation and is distinct from civil law. In its own field it gives force to civil law only by specific enactment in matters such as the guardianship of minors.[207] Similarly, civil law may give force in its field to canon law, but only by specific enactment, as with regard to canonical marriages.[208] Currently, the 1983 Code of Canon Law is in effect for the Latin Church.[209] The distinct 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (CCEO, after the Latin initials) applies to the autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches.[210]

Latin and Eastern churches

In the first thousand years of Catholic history, different varieties of Christianity developed in the Western and Eastern Christian areas of Europe. Though most Eastern-tradition churches are no longer in communion with the Catholic Church after the Great Schism of 1054, autonomous particular churches of both traditions currently participate, also known as "churches sui iuris" (Latin: "of one's own right"). The largest and most well known is the Latin Church, the only Western-tradition church, with more than 1 billion members worldwide. Relatively small in terms of adherents compared to the Latin Church, are the 23 self-governing Eastern Catholic Churches with a combined membership of 17.3 million as of 2010.[211][212][213][214]

The Latin Church is governed by the pope and diocesan bishops directly appointed by him. The pope exercises a direct patriarchal role over the Latin Church, which is considered to form the original and still major part of Western Christianity, a heritage of certain beliefs and customs originating in Europe and northwestern Africa, some of which are inherited by many Christian denominations that trace their origins to the Protestant Reformation.[215]

The Eastern Catholic Churches follow the traditions and spirituality of Eastern Christianity and are churches that have always remained in full communion with the Catholic Church or who have chosen to re-enter full communion in the centuries following the East–West Schism and earlier divisions. These churches are communities of Catholic Christians whose forms of worship reflect distinct historical and cultural influences rather than differences in doctrine.

A church sui iuris is defined in the Code of Canons for the Eastern Churches as a "group of Christian faithful united by a hierarchy" that is recognised by the pope in his capacity as the supreme authority on matters of doctrine within the church.[216] The term is an innovation of the CCEO to denote the relative autonomy of the Eastern Catholic Churches,[217] who remain in full communion with the pope, but have governance structures and liturgical traditions separate from that of the Latin Church.[212] While the Latin Church's canons do not explicitly use the term, it is tacitly recognised as equivalent.

Some Eastern Catholic churches are governed by a patriarch who is elected by the synod of the bishops of that church,[218] others are headed by a major archbishop,[219] others are under a metropolitan,[220] and others are organised as individual eparchies.[221] Each church has authority over the particulars of its internal organisation, liturgical rites, liturgical calendar and other aspects of its spirituality, subject only to the authority of the pope.[222] The Roman Curia has a specific department, the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, to maintain relations with them.[223] The pope does not generally appoint bishops or clergy in the Eastern Catholic Churches, deferring to their internal governance structures, but may intervene if he feels it necessary.

Dioceses, parishes, organisations and institutes

Distribution of Catholics[224]
Percentage of Catholics by country (2010)
Number of Catholics by country (2010)

Individual countries, regions, or major cities are served by particular churches known as dioceses in the Latin Church, or eparchies in the Eastern Catholic Churches, each overseen by a bishop. As of 2008, the Catholic Church has 2,795 dioceses.[225] The bishops in a particular country are members of a national or regional episcopal conference.[226]

Dioceses are divided into parishes, each with one or more priests, deacons or lay ecclesial ministers.[227] Parishes are responsible for the day to day celebration of the sacraments and pastoral care of the laity.[228] As of 2016, there are 221,700 parishes worldwide.}}[229]

In the Latin Church, Catholic men may serve as deacons or priests by receiving sacramental ordination. Men and women may serve as extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, as readers (lectors), or as altar servers. Historically, boys and men have only been permitted to serve as altar servers; however, since the 1990s, girls and women have also been permitted.[230][note 9]

Ordained Catholics, as well as members of the laity, may enter into consecrated life either on an individual basis, as a hermit or consecrated virgin, or by joining an institute of consecrated life (a religious institute or a secular institute) in which to take vows confirming their desire to follow the three evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience.[231] Examples of institutes of consecrated life are the Benedictines, the Carmelites, the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the Missionaries of Charity, the Legionaries of Christ and the Sisters of Mercy.[231]

"Religious institutes" is a modern term encompassing both "religious orders" and "religious congregations," which were once distinguished in canon law.[232] The terms "religious order" and "religious institute" tend to be used as synonyms colloquially.[233]

By means of Catholic charities and beyond, the Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world.[20]

Membership

Catholicism is the second largest religious body in the world, surpassed in size only by Sunni Islam.[234] Church membership, defined as baptised Catholics, was 1.345 billion at the end of 2019, which is 18% of the world population.[4] Brazil has the largest Catholic population in the world, followed by Mexico, Philippines, and the United States.[235] Catholics represent about half of all Christians.[236]

Geographic distribution of Catholics worldwide continues to shift, with 18.7% in Africa, 48.1% in the Americas, 11.0% Asia, 21.2% in Europe, and 0.8% in Oceania.[4]

Catholic ministers include ordained clergy, lay ecclesial ministers, missionaries, and catechists. Also as of the end of 2019, there were 467,938 ordained clergy, including 5,364 bishops, 414,336 priests (diocesan and religious), and 48,238 deacons (permanent).[4] Non-ordained ministers included 3,157,568 catechists, 367,679 lay missionaries, and 39,951 lay ecclesial ministers.[237]

Catholics who have committed to religious or consecrated life instead of marriage or single celibacy, as a state of life or relational vocation, include 54,559 male religious, 705,529 women religious. These are not ordained, nor generally considered ministers unless also engaged in one of the lay minister categories above.[238]

Doctrine

Catholic doctrine has developed over the centuries, reflecting direct teachings of early Christians, formal definitions of heretical and orthodox beliefs by ecumenical councils and in papal bulls, and theological debate by scholars. The church believes that it is continually guided by the Holy Spirit as it discerns new theological issues and is protected infallibly from falling into doctrinal error when a firm decision on an issue is reached.[239][240]

It teaches that revelation has one common source, God, and two distinct modes of transmission: Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition,[241][242] and that these are authentically interpreted by the Magisterium.[243][244] Sacred Scripture consists of the 73 books of the Catholic Bible, consisting of 46 Old Testament and 27 New Testament writings. Sacred Tradition consists of those teachings believed by the church to have been handed down since the time of the Apostles.[245] Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition are collectively known as the "deposit of faith" (depositum fidei in Latin). These are in turn interpreted by the Magisterium (from magister, Latin for "teacher"), the church's teaching authority, which is exercised by the pope and the College of Bishops in union with the pope, the Bishop of Rome.[246] Catholic doctrine is authoritatively summarised in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, published by the Holy See.[247][248]

Nature of God

C. 1210 manuscript version of the traditional Shield of the Trinity theological diagram

The Catholic Church holds that there is one eternal God, who exists as a perichoresis ("mutual indwelling") of three hypostases, or "persons": God the Father; God the Son; and God the Holy Spirit, which together are called the "Holy Trinity".[249]

Catholics believe that Jesus Christ is the "Second Person" of the Trinity, God the Son. In an event known as the Incarnation, through the power of the Holy Spirit, God became united with human nature through the conception of Christ in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Christ, therefore, is understood as being both fully divine and fully human, including possessing a human soul. It is taught that Christ's mission on earth included giving people his teachings and providing his example for them to follow as recorded in the four Gospels.[250] Jesus is believed to have remained sinless while on earth, and to have allowed himself to be unjustly executed by crucifixion, as a sacrifice of himself to reconcile humanity to God; this reconciliation is known as the Paschal Mystery.[251] The Greek term "Christ" and the Hebrew "Messiah" both mean "anointed one", referring to the Christian belief that Jesus' death and resurrection are the fulfilment of the Old Testament's messianic prophecies.[252]

The Catholic Church teaches dogmatically that "the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son, not as from two principles but as from one single principle".[253] It holds that the Father, as the "principle without principle", is the first origin of the Spirit, but also that he, as Father of the only Son, is with the Son the single principle from which the Spirit proceeds.[254] This belief is expressed in the Filioque clause which was added to the Latin version of the Nicene Creed of 381 but not included in the Greek versions of the creed used in Eastern Christianity.[255]

Nature of the church

The Catholic Church teaches that it is the "one true church",[10][256] "the universal sacrament of salvation for the human race",[257][258] and "the one true religion".[259] According to the Catechism, the Catholic Church is further described in the Nicene Creed as the "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church".[260] These are collectively known as the Four Marks of the Church. The church teaches that its founder is Jesus Christ.[261][36] The New Testament records several events considered integral to the establishment of the Catholic Church, including Jesus' activities and teaching and his appointment of the apostles as witnesses to his ministry, suffering, and resurrection. The Great Commission, after his resurrection, instructed the apostles to continue his work. The coming of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles, in an event known as Pentecost, is seen as the beginning of the public ministry of the Catholic Church.[39] The church teaches that all duly consecrated bishops have a lineal succession from the apostles of Christ, known as apostolic succession.[262] In particular, the Bishop of Rome (the pope) is considered the successor to the apostle Simon Peter, a position from which he derives his supremacy over the church.[263]

Catholic belief holds that the church "is the continuing presence of Jesus on earth"[264] and that it alone possesses the full means of salvation.[265] Through the passion (suffering) of Christ leading to his crucifixion as described in the Gospels, it is said Christ made himself an oblation to God the Father in order to reconcile humanity to God;[266] the Resurrection of Jesus makes him the firstborn from the dead, the first among many brethren.[267] By reconciling with God and following Christ's words and deeds, an individual can enter the Kingdom of God.[268] The church sees its liturgy and sacraments as perpetuating the graces achieved through Christ's sacrifice to strengthen a person's relationship with Christ and aid in overcoming sin.[269]

Final judgement

The Catholic Church teaches that, immediately after death, the soul of each person will receive a particular judgement from God, based on their sins and their relationship to Christ.[270][271] This teaching also attests to another day when Christ will sit in universal judgement of all mankind. This final judgement, according to the church's teaching, will bring an end to human history and mark the beginning of both a new and better heaven and earth ruled by God in righteousness.[272]

Depending on the judgement rendered following death, it is believed that a soul may enter one of three states of the afterlife:

  • Heaven is a state of unending union with the divine nature of God, not ontologically, but by grace. It is an eternal life, in which the soul contemplates God in ceaseless beatitude.[273]
  • Purgatory is a temporary condition for the purification of souls who, although destined for Heaven, are not fully detached from sin and thus cannot enter Heaven immediately.[274] In Purgatory, the soul suffers, and is purged and perfected. Souls in purgatory may be aided in reaching heaven by the prayers of the faithful on earth and by the intercession of saints.[275]
  • Final Damnation: Finally, those who persist in living in a state of mortal sin and do not repent before death subject themselves to hell, an everlasting separation from God.[276] The church teaches that no one is condemned to hell without having freely decided to reject God.[277] No one is predestined to hell and no one can determine with absolute certainty who has been condemned to hell.[278] Catholicism teaches that through God's mercy a person can repent at any point before death, be illuminated with the truth of the Catholic faith, and thus obtain salvation.[279] Some Catholic theologians have speculated that the souls of unbaptised infants and non-Christians without mortal sin but who die in original sin are assigned to limbo, although this is not an official dogma of the church.[280]

While the Catholic Church teaches that it alone possesses the full means of salvation,[265] it also acknowledges that the Holy Spirit can make use of Christian communities separated from itself to "impel towards Catholic unity"[281] and "tend and lead toward the Catholic Church",[281] and thus bring people to salvation, because these separated communities contain some elements of proper doctrine, albeit admixed with errors. It teaches that anyone who is saved is saved through the Catholic Church but that people can be saved outside of the ordinary means known as baptism of desire, and by pre-baptismal martyrdom, known as baptism of blood, as well as when conditions of invincible ignorance are present, although invincible ignorance in itself is not a means of salvation.[282]

Saints and devotions

A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognised as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God, while canonisation is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognised saints.[283][284] The first persons honoured as saints were the martyrs. Pious legends of their deaths were considered affirmations of the truth of their faith in Christ. By the fourth century, however, "confessors"—people who had confessed their faith not by dying but by word and life—began to be venerated publicly.

In the Catholic Church, both in Latin and Eastern Catholic churches, the act of canonisation is reserved to the Apostolic See and occurs at the conclusion of a long process requiring extensive proof that the candidate for canonisation lived and died in such an exemplary and holy way that he is worthy to be recognised as a saint. The church's official recognition of sanctity implies that the person is now in Heaven and that he may be publicly invoked and mentioned officially in the liturgy of the church, including in the Litany of the Saints. Canonisation allows universal veneration of the saint in the liturgy of the Roman Rite; for permission to venerate merely locally, only beatification is needed.[285]

Devotions are "external practices of piety" which are not part of the official liturgy of the Catholic Church but are part of the popular spiritual practices of Catholics.[286] These include various practices regarding the veneration of the saints, especially veneration of the Virgin Mary. Other devotional practices include the Stations of the Cross, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Holy Face of Jesus,[287] the various scapulars, novenas to various saints,[288] pilgrimages[289] and devotions to the Blessed Sacrament,[288] and the veneration of saintly images such as the santos.[290] The bishops at the Second Vatican Council reminded Catholics that "devotions should be so drawn up that they harmonise with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, and lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its very nature far surpasses any of them."[291]

Virgin Mary

The Blessed Virgin Mary is highly regarded in the Catholic Church, proclaiming her as Mother of God, free from original sin and an intercessor.

Catholic Mariology deals with the doctrines and teachings concerning the life of the Mary, mother of Jesus, as well as the veneration of Mary by the faithful. Mary is held in special regard, declared the Mother of God (Greek: Θεοτόκος, romanized: Theotokos, lit. 'God-bearer'), and believed as dogma to have remained a virgin throughout her life.[292] Further teachings include the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception (her own conception without the stain of original sin) and the Assumption of Mary (that her body was assumed directly into heaven at the end of her life). Both of these doctrines were defined as infallible dogma, by Pope Pius IX in 1854 and Pope Pius XII in 1950 respectively,[293] but only after consulting with the Catholic bishops throughout the world to ascertain that this is a Catholic belief.[294]

Devotions to Mary are part of Catholic piety but are distinct from the worship of God.[295] Practices include prayers and Marian art, music, and architecture. Several liturgical Marian feasts are celebrated throughout the Church Year and she is honoured with many titles such as Queen of Heaven. Pope Paul VI called her Mother of the Church because, by giving birth to Christ, she is considered to be the spiritual mother to each member of the Body of Christ.[293] Because of her influential role in the life of Jesus, prayers and devotions such as the Hail Mary, the Rosary, the Salve Regina and the Memorare are common Catholic practices.[296] Pilgrimage to the sites of several Marian apparitions affirmed by the church, such as Lourdes, Fátima, and Guadalupe,[297] are also popular Catholic devotions.[298]

Sacraments

Mass at the Grotto at Lourdes, France. The chalice is displayed to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine.

The Catholic Church teaches that it was entrusted with seven sacraments that were instituted by Christ. The number and nature of the sacraments were defined by several ecumenical councils, most recently the Council of Trent.[299][note 10] These are Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick (formerly called Extreme Unction, one of the "Last Rites"), Holy Orders and Holy Matrimony. Sacraments are visible rituals that Catholics see as signs of God's presence and effective channels of God's grace to all those who receive them with the proper disposition (ex opere operato).[300] The Catechism of the Catholic Church categorises the sacraments into three groups, the "sacraments of Christian initiation", "sacraments of healing" and "sacraments at the service of communion and the mission of the faithful". These groups broadly reflect the stages of people's natural and spiritual lives which each sacrament is intended to serve.[301]

The liturgies of the sacraments are central to the church's mission. According to the Catechism:

In the liturgy of the New Covenant every liturgical action, especially the celebration of the Eucharist and the sacraments, is an encounter between Christ and the Church. The liturgical assembly derives its unity from the "communion of the Holy Spirit" who gathers the children of God into the one Body of Christ. This assembly transcends racial, cultural, social—indeed, all human affinities.[302]

According to church doctrine, the sacraments of the church require the proper form, matter, and intent to be validly celebrated.[303] In addition, the Canon Laws for both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches govern who may licitly celebrate certain sacraments, as well as strict rules about who may receive the sacraments.[304] Notably, because the church teaches that Christ is present in the Eucharist,[305] those who are conscious of being in a state of mortal sin are forbidden to receive the sacrament until they have received absolution through the sacrament of Reconciliation (Penance).[306] Catholics are normally obliged to abstain from eating for at least an hour before receiving the sacrament.[306] Non-Catholics are ordinarily prohibited from receiving the Eucharist as well.[304][307]

Catholics, even if they were in danger of death and unable to approach a Catholic minister, may not ask for the sacraments of the Eucharist, penance or anointing of the sick from someone, such as a Protestant minister, who is not known to be validly ordained in line with Catholic teaching on ordination.[308][309] Likewise, even in grave and pressing need, Catholic ministers may not administer these sacraments to those who do not manifest Catholic faith in the sacrament. In relation to the churches of Eastern Christianity not in communion with the Holy See, the Catholic Church is less restrictive, declaring that "a certain communion in sacris, and so in the Eucharist, given suitable circumstances and the approval of Church authority, is not merely possible but is encouraged."[310]

Sacraments of initiation

Baptism

Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes Cathedral (1549), France

As viewed by the Catholic Church, Baptism is the first of three sacraments of initiation as a Christian.[311] It washes away all sins, both original sin and personal actual sins.[312] It makes a person a member of the church.[313] As a gratuitous gift of God that requires no merit on the part of the person who is baptised, it is conferred even on children,[314] who, though they have no personal sins, need it on account of original sin.[315] If a new-born child is in a danger of death, anyone—be it a doctor, a nurse, or a parent—may baptise the child.[316] Baptism marks a person permanently and cannot be repeated.[317] The Catholic Church recognises as valid baptisms conferred even by people who are not Catholics or Christians, provided that they intend to baptise ("to do what the Church does when she baptises") and that they use the Trinitarian baptismal formula.[318]

Confirmation

The Catholic Church sees the sacrament of confirmation as required to complete the grace given in baptism.[319] When adults are baptised, confirmation is normally given immediately afterwards,[320] a practice followed even with newly baptised infants in the Eastern Catholic Churches.[321] In the West confirmation of children is delayed until they are old enough to understand or at the bishop's discretion.[322] In Western Christianity, particularly Catholicism, the sacrament is called confirmation, because it confirms and strengthens the grace of baptism; in the Eastern Churches, it is called chrismation, because the essential rite is the anointing of the person with chrism,[323] a mixture of olive oil and some perfumed substance, usually balsam, blessed by a bishop.[323][324] Those who receive confirmation must be in a state of grace, which for those who have reached the age of reason means that they should first be cleansed spiritually by the sacrament of Penance; they should also have the intention of receiving the sacrament, and be prepared to show in their lives that they are Christians.[325]

Eucharist

Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonisation of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007

For Catholics, the Eucharist is the sacrament which completes Christian initiation. It is described as "the source and summit of the Christian life".[326] The ceremony in which a Catholic first receives the Eucharist is known as First Communion.[327]

The Eucharistic celebration, also called the Mass or Divine liturgy, includes prayers and scriptural readings, as well as an offering of bread and wine, which are brought to the altar and consecrated by the priest to become the body and the blood of Jesus Christ, a change called transubstantiation.[328][note 11] The words of consecration reflect the words spoken by Jesus during the Last Supper, where Christ offered his body and blood to his Apostles the night before his crucifixion. The sacrament re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross,[329] and perpetuates it. Christ's death and resurrection give grace through the sacrament that unites the faithful with Christ and one another, remits venial sin, and aids against committing moral sin (though mortal sin itself is forgiven through the sacrament of penance).[330]

A Catholic believer prays in a church in Mexico

Sacraments of healing

The two sacraments of healing are the Sacrament of Penance and Anointing of the Sick.

Penance

The Sacrament of Penance (also called Reconciliation, Forgiveness, Confession, and Conversion[331]) exists for the conversion of those who, after baptism, separate themselves from Christ by sin.[332] Essential to this sacrament are acts both by the sinner (examination of conscience, contrition with a determination not to sin again, confession to a priest, and performance of some act to repair the damage caused by sin) and by the priest (determination of the act of reparation to be performed and absolution).[333] Serious sins (mortal sins) should be confessed at least once a year and always before receiving Holy Communion, while confession of venial sins also is recommended.[334] The priest is bound under the severest penalties to maintain the "seal of confession", absolute secrecy about any sins revealed to him in confession.[335]

Anointing of the sick

The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece triptych painting of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick) with oil being administered by a priest during last rites. Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1445.

While chrism is used only for the three sacraments that cannot be repeated, a different oil is used by a priest or bishop to bless a Catholic who, because of illness or old age, has begun to be in danger of death.[336] This sacrament, known as Anointing of the Sick, is believed to give comfort, peace, courage and, if the sick person is unable to make a confession, even forgiveness of sins.[337]

The sacrament is also referred to as Unction, and in the past as Extreme Unction, and it is one of the three sacraments that constitute the last rites, together with Penance and Viaticum (Eucharist).[338]

Sacraments at the service of communion

According to the Catechism, there are two sacraments of communion directed towards the salvation of others: priesthood and marriage.[339] Within the general vocation to be a Christian, these two sacraments "consecrate to specific mission or vocation among the people of God. Men receive the holy orders to feed the Church by the word and grace. Spouses marry so that their love may be fortified to fulfil duties of their state".[340]

Holy Orders

Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination.

The sacrament of Holy Orders consecrates and deputes some Christians to serve the whole body as members of three degrees or orders: episcopate (bishops), presbyterate (priests) and diaconate (deacons).[341][342] The church has defined rules on who may be ordained into the clergy. In the Latin Church, the priesthood is generally restricted to celibate men, and the episcopate is always restricted to celibate men.[343] Men who are already married may be ordained in certain Eastern Catholic churches in most countries,[344] and the personal ordinariates and may become deacons even in the Western Church[345][346] (see Clerical marriage). But after becoming a Catholic priest, a man may not marry (see Clerical celibacy) unless he is formally laicised.

All clergy, whether deacons, priests or bishops, may preach, teach, baptise, witness marriages and conduct funeral liturgies.[347] Only bishops and priests can administer the sacraments of the Eucharist, Reconciliation (Penance) and Anointing of the Sick.[348][349] Only bishops can administer the sacrament of Holy Orders, which ordains someone into the clergy.[350]

Matrimony

Wedding mass in the Philippines

The Catholic Church teaches that marriage is a social and spiritual bond between a man and a woman, ordered towards the good of the spouses and procreation of children; according to Catholic teachings on sexual morality, it is the only appropriate context for sexual activity. A Catholic marriage, or any marriage between baptised individuals of any Christian denomination, is viewed as a sacrament. A sacramental marriage, once consummated, cannot be dissolved except by death.[351][note 12] The church recognises certain conditions, such as freedom of consent, as required for any marriage to be valid; In addition, the church sets specific rules and norms, known as canonical form, that Catholics must follow.[354]

The church does not recognise divorce as ending a valid marriage and allows state-recognised divorce only as a means of protecting the property and well-being of the spouses and any children. However, consideration of particular cases by the competent ecclesiastical tribunal can lead to declaration of the invalidity of a marriage, a declaration usually referred to as an annulment.[355] Remarriage following a divorce is not permitted unless the prior marriage was declared invalid.[355]

Liturgy

Catholic religious objects – Holy Bible, crucifix and rosary

Among the 24 autonomous (sui iuris) churches, numerous liturgical and other traditions exist, called rites, which reflect historical and cultural diversity rather than differences in belief.[356] In the definition of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, "a rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual, and disciplinary patrimony, culture and circumstances of history of a distinct people, by which its own manner of living the faith is manifested in each Church sui iuris".[357]

The liturgy of the sacrament of the Eucharist, called the Mass in the West and Divine Liturgy or other names in the East, is the principal liturgy of the Catholic Church.[358] This is because it is considered the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ himself.[359] Its most widely used form is that of the Roman Rite as promulgated by Paul VI in 1969 and revised by Pope John Paul II in 2002. In certain circumstances, the 1962 form of the Roman Rite remains authorised in the Latin Church. Eastern Catholic Churches have their own rites. The liturgies of the Eucharist and the other sacraments vary from rite to rite, reflecting different theological emphases.

Western rites

The Roman Rite is the most common rite of worship used by the Catholic Church. Its use is found worldwide, originating in Rome and spreading throughout Europe, influencing and eventually supplanting local rites.[360] The present ordinary form of Mass in the Roman Rite, found in the post-1969 editions of the Roman Missal, is usually celebrated in the local vernacular language, using an officially approved translation from the original text in Latin. An outline of its major liturgical elements can be found in the sidebar.

Elevation of the chalice before an altar after the consecration during a Solemn Mass of Tridentine Mass

In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI affirmed the licitness of continued use of the 1962 Roman Missal as an "extraordinary form" (forma extraordinaria) of the Roman Rite, speaking of it also as an usus antiquior ("older use"), and issuing new more permissive norms for its employment.[361] An instruction issued four years later spoke of the two forms or usages of the Roman Rite approved by the pope as the ordinary form and the extraordinary form ("the forma ordinaria" and "the forma extraordinaria").[362]

The 1962 edition of the Roman Missal, published a few months before the Second Vatican Council opened, was the last that presented the Mass as standardised in 1570 by Pope Pius V at the request of the Council of Trent and that is therefore known as the Tridentine Mass.[305] Pope Pius V's Roman Missal was subjected to minor revisions by Pope Clement VIII in 1604, Pope Urban VIII in 1634, Pope Pius X in 1911, Pope Pius XII in 1955, and Pope John XXIII in 1962. Each successive edition was the ordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass until superseded by a later edition. When the 1962 edition was superseded by that of Paul VI, promulgated in 1969, its continued use at first required permission from bishops;[363] but Pope Benedict XVI's 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum allowed free use of it for Mass celebrated without a congregation and authorised parish priests to permit, under certain conditions, its use even at public Masses. Except for the scriptural readings, which Pope Benedict allowed to be proclaimed in the vernacular language, it is celebrated exclusively in liturgical Latin.[364]

Since 2014, clergy in the small personal ordinariates set up for groups of former Anglicans under the terms of the 2009 document Anglicanorum Coetibus[365] are permitted to use a variation of the Roman Rite called "Divine Worship" or, less formally, "Ordinariate Use",[366] which incorporates elements of the Anglican liturgy and traditions,[note 13] an accommodation protested by Anglican leaders.

In the Archdiocese of Milan, with around five million Catholics the largest in Europe,[367] Mass is celebrated according to the Ambrosian Rite. Other Latin Church rites include the Mozarabic[368] and those of some religious institutes.[369] These liturgical rites have an antiquity of at least 200 years before 1570, the date of Pope Pius V's Quo primum, and were thus allowed to continue.[370]

Eastern rites

East Syrian Rite wedding crowning celebrated by a bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India, one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the pope and the Catholic Church.

The Eastern Catholic Churches share common patrimony and liturgical rites as their counterparts, including Eastern Orthodox and other Eastern Christian churches who are no longer in communion with the Holy See. These include churches that historically developed in Russia, Caucasus, the Balkans, North Eastern Africa, India and the Middle East. The Eastern Catholic Churches are groups of faithful who have either never been out of communion with the Holy See or who have restored communion with it at the cost of breaking communion with their associates of the same tradition.[371]

The rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches include the Byzantine Rite, in its Antiochian, Greek and Slavonic varieties; the Alexandrian Rite; the Syriac Rite; the Armenian Rite; the Maronite Rite and the Chaldean Rite. Eastern Catholic Churches have the autonomy to set the particulars of their liturgical forms and worship, within certain limits to protect the "accurate observance" of their liturgical tradition.[372] In the past some of the rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches were subject to a degree of liturgical Latinisation. However, in recent years Eastern Catholic Churches have returned to traditional Eastern practices in accord with the Vatican II decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum.[373] Each church has its own liturgical calendar.[374]

Social and cultural issues

Catholic social teaching

Catholic social teaching, reflecting the concern Jesus showed for the impoverished, places a heavy emphasis on the corporal works of mercy and the spiritual works of mercy, namely the support and concern for the sick, the poor and the afflicted.[375][376] Church teaching calls for a preferential option for the poor while canon law prescribes that "The Christian faithful are also obliged to promote social justice and, mindful of the precept of the Lord, to assist the poor."[377] Its foundations are widely considered to have been laid by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical letter Rerum novarum which upholds the rights and dignity of labour and the right of workers to form unions.

Catholic teaching regarding sexuality calls for a practice of chastity, with a focus on maintaining the spiritual and bodily integrity of the human person. Marriage is considered the only appropriate context for sexual activity.[378] Church teachings about sexuality have become an issue of increasing controversy, especially after the close of the Second Vatican Council, due to changing cultural attitudes in the Western world described as the sexual revolution.

The church has also addressed stewardship of the natural environment, and its relationship to other social and theological teachings. In the document Laudato si', dated 24 May 2015, Pope Francis critiques consumerism and irresponsible development, and laments environmental degradation and global warming.[379] The pope expressed concern that the warming of the planet is a symptom of a greater problem: the developed world's indifference to the destruction of the planet as humans pursue short-term economic gains.[380]

Social services

Saint Teresa of Calcutta advocated for the sick, the poor and the needy by practicing the acts of corporal works of mercy.

The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and medical services in the world.[20] In 2010, the Catholic Church's Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers said that the church manages 26% of health care facilities in the world, including hospitals, clinics, orphanages, pharmacies and centres for those with leprosy.[381]

The church has always been involved in education, since the founding of the first universities of Europe. It runs and sponsors thousands of primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities throughout the world[382][383] and operates the world's largest non-governmental school system.[384]

Religious institutes for women have played a particularly prominent role in the provision of health and education services,[385] as with orders such as the Sisters of Mercy, Little Sisters of the Poor, the Missionaries of Charity, the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart, the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament and the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul.[386] The Catholic nun Mother Teresa of Calcutta, India, founder of the Missionaries of Charity, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work among India's poor.[387] Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo won the same award in 1996 for "work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor".[388]

The church is also actively engaged in international aid and development through organisations such as Catholic Relief Services, Caritas International, Aid to the Church in Need, refugee advocacy groups such as the Jesuit Refugee Service and community aid groups such as the Saint Vincent de Paul Society.[389]

Sexual morality

Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling

The Catholic Church calls all members to practise chastity according to their state in life. Chastity includes temperance, self-mastery, personal and cultural growth, and divine grace. It requires refraining from lust, masturbation, fornication, pornography, prostitution and rape. Chastity for those who are not married requires living in continence, abstaining from sexual activity; those who are married are called to conjugal chastity.[390]

In the church's teaching, sexual activity is reserved to married couples, whether in a sacramental marriage among Christians or in a natural marriage where one or both spouses are unbaptised. Even in romantic relationships, particularly engagement to marriage, partners are called to practise continence, in order to test mutual respect and fidelity.[391] Chastity in marriage requires in particular conjugal fidelity and protecting the fecundity of marriage. The couple must foster trust and honesty as well as spiritual and physical intimacy. Sexual activity must always be open to the possibility of life;[392] the church calls this the procreative significance. It must likewise always bring a couple together in love; the church calls this the unitive significance.[393]

Contraception and certain other sexual practices are not permitted, although natural family planning methods are permitted to provide healthy spacing between births, or to postpone children for a just reason.[394] Pope Francis said in 2015 that he is worried that the church has grown "obsessed" with issues such as abortion, same-sex marriage and contraception and has criticised the Catholic Church for placing dogma before love, and for prioritising moral doctrines over helping the poor and marginalised.[395][396]

Divorce and declarations of nullity

Canon law makes no provision for divorce between baptised individuals, as a valid, consummated sacramental marriage is considered to be a lifelong bond.[397] However, a declaration of nullity may be granted when the proof is produced that essential conditions for contracting a valid marriage were absent from the beginning—in other words, that the marriage was not valid due to some impediment. A declaration of nullity, commonly called an annulment, is a judgement on the part of an ecclesiastical tribunal determining that a marriage was invalidly attempted.[398] In addition, marriages among unbaptised individuals may be dissolved with papal permission under certain situations, such as a desire to marry a Catholic, under Pauline or Petrine privilege.[352][353] An attempt at remarriage following divorce without a declaration of nullity places "the remarried spouse … in a situation of public and permanent adultery". An innocent spouse who lives in continence following divorce, or couples who live in continence following a civil divorce for a grave cause, do not sin.[399]

Worldwide, diocesan tribunals completed over 49000 cases for nullity of marriage in 2006. Over the past 30 years about 55 to 70% of annulments have occurred in the United States. The growth in annulments has been substantial; in the United States, 27,000 marriages were annulled in 2006, compared to 338 in 1968. However, approximately 200,000 married Catholics in the United States divorce each year; 10 million total as of 2006.[400][note 14] Divorce is increasing in some predominantly Catholic countries in Europe.[402] In some predominantly Catholic countries, it is only in recent years that divorce was introduced (e.g. Italy (1970), Portugal (1975), Brazil (1977), Spain (1981), Ireland (1996), Chile (2004) and Malta (2011), while the Philippines and the Vatican City have no procedure for divorce. (The Philippines does, however, allow divorce for Muslims.)

Contraception

Pope Paul VI issued Humanae vitae on 25 July 1968.

The church teaches that sexual intercourse should only take place between a man and woman who are married to each other, and should be without the use of birth control or contraception. In his encyclical Humanae vitae[403] (1968), Pope Paul VI firmly rejected all contraception, thus contradicting dissenters in the church that saw the birth control pill as an ethically justifiable method of contraception, though he permitted the regulation of births by means of natural family planning. This teaching was continued especially by John Paul II in his encyclical Evangelium Vitae, where he clarified the church's position on contraception, abortion and euthanasia by condemning them as part of a "culture of death" and calling instead for a "culture of life".[404]

Many Western Catholics have voiced significant disagreement with the church's teaching on contraception.[405] Catholics for Choice, a political lobbyist group that is not associated with the Catholic Church, stated in 1998 that 96% of U.S. Catholic women had used contraceptives at some point in their lives and that 72% of Catholics believed that one could be a good Catholic without obeying the church's teaching on birth control.[406] Use of natural family planning methods among United States Catholics purportedly is low, although the number cannot be known with certainty.[note 15] As Catholic health providers are among the largest providers of services to patients with HIV/AIDS worldwide, there is significant controversy within and outside the church regarding the use of condoms as a means of limiting new infections, as condom use ordinarily constitutes prohibited contraceptive use.[409]

Similarly, the Catholic Church opposes artificial insemination regardless of whether it is homologous (from the husband) or heterologous (from a donor) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF), saying that the artificial process replaces the love and conjugal act between a husband and wife.[410] In addition, it opposes IVF because it might cause disposal of embryos; Catholics believe an embryo is an individual with a soul who must be treated as such.[411] For this reason, the church also opposes abortion.[412]

Homosexuality

The Catholic Church also teaches that "homosexual acts" are "contrary to the natural law", "acts of grave depravity" and "under no circumstances can they be approved", but that persons experiencing homosexual tendencies must be accorded respect and dignity.[413] According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church,

The number of men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies is not negligible. This inclination, which is objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial. They must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard should be avoided… Homosexual persons are called to chastity. By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at times by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection.[414]

This part of the Catechism was quoted by Pope Francis in a 2013 press interview in which he remarked, when asked about an individual:

I think that when you encounter a person like this [the individual he was asked about], you must make a distinction between the fact of a person being gay from the fact of being a lobby, because lobbies, all are not good. That is bad. If a person is gay and seeks the Lord and has good will, well who am I to judge them?[415]

This remark and others made in the same interview were seen as a change in the tone, but not in the substance of the teaching of the church,[416] which includes opposition to same-sex marriage.[417] Certain dissenting Catholic groups oppose the position of the Catholic Church and seek to change it.[418]

Holy orders and women

Women and men religious engage in a variety of occupations, from contemplative prayer, to teaching, to providing health care, to working as missionaries.[385][419] While Holy Orders are reserved for men, Catholic women have played diverse roles in the life of the church, with religious institutes providing a formal space for their participation and convents providing spaces for their self-government, prayer and influence through many centuries. Religious sisters and nuns have been extensively involved in developing and running the church's worldwide health and education service networks.[420]

Efforts in support of the ordination of women to the priesthood led to several rulings by the Roman Curia or popes against the proposal, as in Declaration on the Question of the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood (1976), Mulieris Dignitatem (1988) and Ordinatio sacerdotalis (1994). According to the latest ruling, found in Ordinatio sacerdotalis, Pope John Paul II affirmed that the Catholic Church "does not consider herself authorised to admit women to priestly ordination".[421] In defiance of these rulings, opposition groups such as Roman Catholic Womenpriests have performed ceremonies they affirm as sacramental ordinations (with, reputedly, an ordaining male Catholic bishop in the first few instances) which, according to canon law, are both illicit and invalid and considered mere simulations[422] of the sacrament of ordination.[423][note 16] The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith responded by issuing a statement clarifying that any Catholic bishops involved in ordination ceremonies for women, as well as the women themselves if they were Catholic, would automatically receive the penalty of excommunication (latae sententiae, literally "with the sentence already applied", i.e. automatically), citing canon 1378 of canon law and other church laws.[424]

Sexual abuse cases

From the 1990s, the issue of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy and other church members has become the subject of civil litigation, criminal prosecution, media coverage and public debate in countries around the world. The Catholic Church has been criticised for its handling of abuse complaints when it became known that some bishops had shielded accused priests, transferring them to other pastoral assignments where some continued to commit sexual offences.

In response to the scandal, formal procedures have been established to help prevent abuse, encourage the reporting of any abuse that occurs and to handle such reports promptly, although groups representing victims have disputed their effectiveness.[425] In 2014, Pope Francis instituted the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors for the safeguarding of minors.[426]

See also

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  • Anti-Catholicism
  • Catechism of the Catholic Church
  • Catholic Church by country
  • Catholic spirituality
  • Criticism of the Catholic Church
  • Glossary of the Catholic Church
  • List of Catholic religious institutes
  • Lists of Catholics
  • Role of Christianity in civilisation

Notes

  1. ^ While the Catholic Church considers itself to be the authentic continuation of the Christian community founded by Jesus Christ, it teaches that other Christian churches and communities can be in an imperfect communion with the Catholic Church.[12][13]
  2. ^ Quote of St Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans (c. 110 AD): "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, there is the universal [katholike] Church."[24]
  3. ^ Examples uses of "Roman Catholic" by the Holy See: the encyclicals Divini Illius Magistri Archived 23 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine of Pope Pius XI and Humani generis Archived 19 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine of Pope Pius XII; joint declarations signed by Pope Benedict XVI with Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams on 23 November 2006 Archived 2 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople on 30 November 2006.
  4. ^ Example use of "Roman" Catholic by a bishop's conference: The Baltimore Catechism, an official catechism authorised by the Catholic bishops of the United States, states: "That is why we are called Roman Catholics; to show that we are united to the real successor of St Peter" (Question 118) and refers to the church as the "Roman Catholic Church" under Questions 114 and 131 (Baltimore Catechism).
  5. ^ Joyce, George (1913). "The Pope" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
    Regarding Peter as the first Bishop of Rome, "It is not, however, difficult to show that the fact of his [Peter's] bishopric is so well attested as to be historically certain. In considering this point, it will be well to begin with the third century, when references to it become frequent and work backwards from this point. In the middle of the third century St. Cyprian expressly terms the Roman See the Chair of St. Peter, saying that Cornelius has succeeded to "the place of Fabian which is the place of Peter" (Ep 55:8; cf. 59:14). Firmilian of Caesarea notices that Stephen claimed to decide the controversy regarding rebaptism on the ground that he held the succession from Peter (Cyprian, Ep. 75:17). He does not deny the claim: yet certainly, had he been able, he would have done so. Thus in 250, the Roman episcopate of Peter was admitted by those best able to know the truth, not merely at Rome but in the churches of Africa and of Asia Minor. In the first quarter of the century (about 220) Tertullian (De Pud. 21) mentions Callistus's claim that Peter's power to forgive sins had descended in a special manner to him. Had the Roman Church been merely founded by Peter and not reckoned him as its first bishop, there could have been no ground for such a contention. Tertullian, like Firmilian, had every motive to deny the claim. Moreover, he had himself resided at Rome, and would have been well aware if the idea of a Roman episcopate of Peter had been, as is contended by its opponents, a novelty dating from the first years of the third century, supplanting the older tradition according to which Peter and Paul were co-founders and Linus first bishop. About the same period, Hippolytus (for Lightfoot is surely right in holding him to be the author of the first part of the "Liberian Catalogue" – "Clement of Rome", 1:259) reckons Peter in the list of Roman bishops…"[46]
  6. ^ While ruling contraception to be prohibited, Pope Paul VI did, however, consider natural family planning methods to be morally permissible if used with just cause.
  7. ^ According to Catholic teaching, Jesus Christ is the 'invisible Head' of the Church[181][182][183] while the pope is the 'visible Head'.[184][185]
  8. ^ The last resignation occurred on 28 February 2013, when Pope Benedict XVI retired, citing ill health in his advanced age. The next most recent resignation occurred in 1415, as part of the Council of Constance's resolution of the Avignon Papacy.[193]
  9. ^ In 1992, the Vatican clarified the 1983 Code of Canon Law removed the requirement that altar servers be male; permission to use female altar servers within a diocese is at the discretion of the bishop.[230]
  10. ^ Other councils that addressed the sacraments include the Second Council of Lyon (1274); Council of Florence (1439); as well as the Council of Trent (1547)[299]
  11. ^ For an outline of the Eucharistic liturgy in the Roman Rite, see the side bar in the "Worship and liturgy".
  12. ^ Marriages involving unbaptised individuals are considered valid, but not sacramental. While sacramental marriages are insoluble, non-sacramental marriages may be dissolved under certain situations, such as a desire to marry a Catholic, under Pauline or Petrine privilege.[352][353]
  13. ^ The Divine Worship variant of the Roman Rite differs from the "Anglican Use" variant, which was introduced in 1980 for the few United States parishes established in accordance with a pastoral provision for former members of the Episcopal Church (the American branch of the Anglican Communion). Both uses adapted Anglican liturgical traditions for use within the Catholic Church.
  14. ^ With regard to divorce in the United States, according to the Barna Group, among all who have been married, 33% have been divorced at least once; among American Catholics, 28% (the study did not track religious annulments).[401]
  15. ^ Regarding use of natural family planning, in 2002, 24% of the U.S. population identified as Catholic,[407] but according to a 2002 study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, of sexually active Americans avoiding pregnancy, only 1.5% were using NFP.[408]
  16. ^ According to Roman Catholic Womanpriests: "The principal consecrating Roman Catholic male bishop who ordained our first women bishops is a bishop with apostolic succession within the Roman Catholic Church in full communion with the pope."[423]

References

  • NOTE: CCC stands for Catechism of the Catholic Church. The number following CCC is the paragraph number, of which there are 2865. The numbers cited in the Compendium of the CCC are question numbers, of which there are 598. Canon law citations from the 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches are labelled "CCEO, Canon xxx", to distinguish from canons of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, which are labelled "Canon xxx".
  1. ^ Marshall, Thomas William (1844). Notes of the Episcopal Polity of the Holy Catholic Church. London: Levey, Rossen and Franklin. ‹See Tfd›ASIN 1163912190.
  2. ^ Stanford, Peter. "Roman Catholic Church". BBC Religions. BBC. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  3. ^ Bokenkotter 2004, p. 18.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Pubblicati l'Annuario Pontificio 2021 e l'Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2019" (in Italian). L'Osservatore Romano. 25 March 2021. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  5. ^ Calderisi, Robert. Earthly Mission - The Catholic Church and World Development; TJ International Ltd; 2013; p.40
  6. ^ "Laudato Si". Vermont Catholic. 8 (4, 2016–2017, Winter): 73. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  7. ^ Mark A. Noll. The New Shape of World Christianity (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2009), 191.
  8. ^ a b O'Collins, p. v (preface).
  9. ^ "Lumen gentium". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  10. ^ a b c "Vatican congregation reaffirms truth, oneness of Catholic Church". Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  11. ^ Bokenkotter 2004, p. 7.
  12. ^ "Responses to Some Questions regarding Certain Aspects of the Doctrine of the Church". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013. It is possible, according to Catholic doctrine, to affirm correctly that the Church of Christ is present and operative in the churches and ecclesial communities not yet fully in communion with the Catholic Church, on account of the elements of sanctification and truth that are present in them.
  13. ^ "Declaration on the Unicity and Salvific Universality of Jesus Christ and the Church Dominus Iesus § 17". Vatican.va. Therefore, there exists a single Church of Christ, which subsists in the Catholic Church, governed by the Successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him. The Churches which, while not existing in perfect Koinonia with the Catholic Church, remain united to her by means of the closest bonds, that is, by apostolic succession and a valid Eucharist, are true particular churches. Therefore, the Church of Christ is present and operative also in these Churches, even though they lack full communion with the Catholic Church since they do not accept the Catholic doctrine of the Primacy, which, according to the will of God, the Bishop of Rome objectively has and exercises over the entire Church. … 'The Christian faithful are therefore not permitted to imagine that the Church of Christ is nothing more than a collection—divided, yet in some way one—of Churches and ecclesial communities; nor are they free to hold that today the Church of Christ nowhere really exists, and must be considered only as a goal which all Churches and ecclesial communities must strive to reach.'
  14. ^ Holy Bible: Matthew 16:19
  15. ^ "CCC, 890". Vatican.va.
  16. ^ "CCC, 835". Vatican.va. The rich variety of … theological and spiritual heritages proper to the local churches 'unified in a common effort shows all the more resplendently the catholicity of the undivided Church'.(cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen gentium, 23)
  17. ^ Colin Gunton. "Christianity among the Religions in the Encyclopedia of Religion", Religious Studies, Vol. 24, number 1, page 14. In a review of an article from the Encyclopedia of Religion, Gunton writes: "[T]he article [on Catholicism in the encyclopedia] rightly suggests caution, suggesting at the outset that Roman Catholicism is marked by several different doctrinal, theological and liturgical emphases."
  18. ^ "CCC, 1322–1327". Vatican.va. the Eucharist is the sum and summary of our faith
  19. ^ "The Four Marian Dogmas". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  20. ^ a b c Agnew, John (12 February 2010). "Deus Vult: The Geopolitics of Catholic Church". Geopolitics. 15 (1): 39–61. doi:10.1080/14650040903420388. S2CID 144793259.
  21. ^ John Meyendorff, Catholicity and the Church, St Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1997, ISBN 0-88141-006-3, p. 7
  22. ^ Elwell, Walter; Comfort, Philip Wesley (2001), Tyndale Bible Dictionary, Tyndale House Publishers, pp. 266, 828, ISBN 0-8423-7089-7
  23. ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, p. 127.
  24. ^ a b Thurston, Herbert (1908). "Catholic". In Knight, Kevin (ed.). The Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  25. ^ "Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture XVIII, 26". Tertullian.org. 6 August 2004. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  26. ^ Edictum de fide catholica
  27. ^ "Eastern Orthodoxy", Encyclopædia Britannica online.
  28. ^ "catholic, adj. and n." Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford University Press, June 2014. Web. 7 August 2014. Excerpt: "After the separation of East and West 'Catholic' was assumed as its descriptive epithet by the Western or Latin Church, as 'Orthodox' was by the Eastern or Greek. At the Reformation, the term 'Catholic' was claimed as its exclusive right by the body remaining under the Roman obedience, in opposition to the 'Protestant' or 'Reformed' National Churches. These, however, also retained the term, giving it, for the most part, a wider and more ideal or absolute sense, as the attribute of no single community, but only of the whole communion of the saved and saintly in all churches and ages. In England, it was claimed that the Church, even as Reformed, was the national branch of the 'Catholic Church' in its proper historical sense." Note: The full text of the OED definition of "catholic" can be consulted here.
  29. ^ McBrien, Richard (2008). The Church. Harper Collins. p. xvii. Online version available Browseinside.harpercollins.com Archived 27 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Quote: "[T]he use of the adjective 'Catholic' as a modifier of 'Church' became divisive only after the East–West Schism… and the Protestant Reformation. … In the former case, the Western Church claimed for itself the title Catholic Church, while the East appropriated the name Orthodox Church. In the latter case, those in communion with the Bishop of Rome retained the adjective "Catholic", while the churches that broke with the Papacy were called Protestant."
  30. ^ "Roman Catholic, n. and adj". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  31. ^ "Documents of the II Vatican Council". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 5 June 2004. Retrieved 4 May 2009.|quote=Note: The pope's signature appears in the Latin version.}}
  32. ^ "Decrees of the First Vatican Council – Papal Encyclicals". 29 June 1868.
  33. ^ "The Bull of Indiction of the Sacred Oecumenical and General Council of Trent under the Sovereign Pontiff, Paul III." The Council of Trent: The Canons and Decrees of the Sacred and Oecumenical Council of Trent. Ed. and trans. J. Waterworth. London: Dolman, 1848. Retrieved from History.Hanover.edu, 12 September 2018.
  34. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Roman Catholic". www.newadvent.org.
  35. ^ "Kenneth D. Whitehead". www.ewtn.com.
  36. ^ a b Bokenkotter 2004, p. 30.
  37. ^ Kreeft, p. 980.
  38. ^ Burkett, p. 263
  39. ^ a b Barry, p. 46.
  40. ^ "CCC, 1076". Vatican.va. Retrieved 8 November 2014. § 1076: The Church was made manifest to the world on the day of Pentecost by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit…
  41. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Holy Ghost" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
    "He [the Holy Spirit] is essentially the Spirit of truth (John 14:16–17; 15:26), Whose office it is to … to teach the Apostles the full meaning of it [of the truth] (John 14:26; 16:13). With these Apostles, He will abide forever (John 14:16). Having descended on them at Pentecost, He will guide them in their work (Acts 8:29)…
  42. ^ "CCC, 880, 883". Vatican.va. Retrieved 1 November 2014."
  43. ^ Christian Bible, Matthew 16:13–20
  44. ^ "Saint Peter the Apostle: Incidents important in interpretations of Peter". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  45. ^ "CCC, 880–881". Vatican.va. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  46. ^ a b Joyce, George (1913). "The Pope" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  47. ^ "Was Peter in Rome?". Catholic Answers. 10 August 2004. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2014. if Peter never made it to the capital, he still could have been the first pope, since one of his successors could have been the first holder of that office to settle in Rome. After all, if the papacy exists, it was established by Christ during his lifetime, long before Peter is said to have reached Rome. There must have been a period of some years in which the papacy did not yet have its connection to Rome.
  48. ^ a b c Brown, Raymond E. (2003). 101 Questions and Answers on the Bible. Paulist Press. pp. 132–134. ISBN 978-0-8091-4251-4.
  49. ^ Oscar Cullmann (1962), Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr (2 ed.), Westminster Press p. 234
  50. ^ Henry Chadwick (1993), The Early Church, Penguin Books p. 18
  51. ^ Ehrman, Bart D (2006). Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. US: Oxford University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-19530-013-0. Peter, in short, could not have been the first bishop of Rome, because the Roman church did not have anyone as its bishop until about a hundred years after Peter's death.
  52. ^ Bokenkotter 2004, p. 24.
  53. ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, pp. 155–159, 164.
  54. ^ Valliere, Paul (2012). Conciliarism. Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-107-01574-6.
  55. ^ Patriarch, Bartholomew (2008). Encountering the Mystery. Random House. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-385-52561-9.
  56. ^ Michalopulos, George C. (11 September 2009). "Canon 28 and Eastern Papalism: Cause or Effect?". Archived from the original on 10 January 2013.
  57. ^ Noble, p. 214.
  58. ^ "Rome (early Christian)". Cross, F. L., ed., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  59. ^ Ayer, Joseph Cullen, Jr. (1913). A Source Book for Ancient Church History: From the Apostolic Age to the Close of the Conciliar Period. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 538.
  60. ^ Ayer, p. 553
  61. ^ Baumgartner, Frederic J. (2003). Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 10–12. ISBN 978-0-31229-463-2.
  62. ^ Duffy, Eamon. 1997. Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes. Yale University Press. pp. 66–67
  63. ^ Le Goff, p. 14: "The face of the barbarian invaders had been transformed by another crucial fact. Although some of them had remained pagan, another part of them, not the least, had become Christian. But, by a curious chance, which was to leave serious consequences, these converted barbarians—the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians, Vandals, and later the Lombards—had been converted to Arianism, which had become a heresy after the council of Nicaea. They had in fact been converted by followers of the 'apostle of the Goths', Wulfilas."
  64. ^ Le Goff, p. 14: "Thus what should have been a religious bond was, on the contrary, a subject of discord and sparked off bitter conflicts between Arian barbarians and Catholic Romans."
  65. ^ Le Goff, p. 21: "Clovis' master-stroke was to convert himself and his people not to Arianism, like the other barbarian kings, but to Catholicism."
  66. ^ Le Goff, p. 21
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External links

  • Vatican.va Holy See official website
  • The Vatican's channel on YouTube